Asked by Lauren Harrison, from Harvard Kennedy School Author: John Campbell
The exploitation of Congo's vast resources by competing elites and militaries for personal enrichment promotes insecurity and stymies development. Only very strong Western and African public outcry and a change in China's nonintervention approach might open the possibilities for change.
Electoral instability and insurrectionary violence may once again afflict the Democratic Republic of Congo. Joshua Marks of the National Endowment for Democracy proposes steps the United States can take to prevent these scenarios from occurring and, if they occur, mitigate their potential consequences.
With the death toll in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo likely exceeding six million, the UN peacekeeping force needs beefing up, and both the Rwandan and Congolese governments should punish nationals guilty of violence against civilians, says CFR's John Campbell.
In this New York Times op-ed, Nicholas Kristof, who has been profiling the ongoing violence in eastern Congo against civilians, laments that the international response to this humanitarian crisis has been "pathetic," citing the 5.4 million people that have died in the conflict since April 2007 and urging the international community to show more compassion toward Congo.
This module features teaching notes by Independent Consultant for International Development and Foreign Policy Anthony W. Gambino, author of Congo: Securing Peace, Sustaining Progress, along with other resources to supplement the text. This Council Special Report addresses the country's social, economic, and security challenges and recommends two priorities for U.S. policy: combating insecurity in the east and promoting sustainable development.
Adam Hochschild emphasizes four major factors that continuously cause conflict in Congo: long-standing antagonism between certain ethnic groups, the 1994 Rwandan genocide, vast wealth in natural resources, and lastly, a vast population--65 million--in an area as big as the United States east of the Mississippi.
This International Crisis Group report examines the failed attempts of the past to dismantle the Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR)--an insurgency with roots that go back to the 1994 genocide in Rwanda--and recommends a new approach to help end great civilian suffering and restore state authority in the eastern Congo.
International Crisis Group Africa Report 2009 outlines five priorities for a successful peacebuilding strategy for the eastern Congo including a credible and comprehensive disarmament strategy and a security system reform with a new focus on building capacity and accountability in the Kivus as well as Orientale province.
Listen to Anthony W. Gambino, an independent consultant for international development and foreign policy, discuss securing peace in the Congo with students as part of CFR's Academic Conference Call series.
This report lays out a thoughtful agenda for U.S. policy toward the Democratic Republic of Congo, arguing that what happens there should matter to the United States—for humanitarian reasons as well as economic and strategic ones.
The Council on Foreign Relations' David Rockefeller Studies Program—CFR's "think tank"—is home to more than seventy full-time, adjunct, and visiting scholars and practitioners (called "fellows"). Their expertise covers the world's major regions as well as the critical issues shaping today's global agenda. Download the printable CFR Experts Guide.