Egypt's 2011 revolution marks the latest chapter in Egyptians' longtime struggle for greater democratic freedoms. In this video, Steven A. Cook, CFR's Hasib J. Sabbagh senior fellow for Middle Eastern studies and author of "The Struggle for Egypt", identifies the lessons that Egypt's emerging leadership must learn from the Nasser, Sadat, and Mubarak regimes.
CFR senior fellow Steven Cook traces the “stirrings of Egyptian nationalism” back to the 1880s and culminates with the events in Tahrir Square in early 2011. He chronicles the end of the British occupation, the emergence of the Muslim Brotherhood, the rise of Nasser and his quest to become a pan-Arab leader in the 1960s, Egypt's decision to make peace with Israel and ally with United States, the subsequent assassination of Sadat in 1981, and the revolution that overthrew Mubarak.
The recent mob attack on the Israeli embassy in Cairo spotlights the fragility of Israel-Egypt relations, but the Egyptian military will strive to restore the peace between the two nations, says former U.S. ambassador Frank G. Wisner.
The recent flare up of hostilities along the Israel-Egypt border signals a hardening of Egypt's stance toward Israel and further difficulties for the sluggish Mideast peace process, says expert David Makovsky.
The trial of former Egyptian president Hosni Mubarak has sparked a debate in Egypt about retributive justice versus the rule of law, which will be among the many issues to play out in the fall's parliamentary elections, says CFR's Steven A. Cook.
Interviewer: Mark P. Lagon Interviewee: Zalmay M. Khalilzad
Amb. Zalmay Khalilzad, former U.S. ambassador to Afghanistan, Iraq, and the United Nations, discusses democracy promotion in the Middle East following the Arab Spring with Mark Lagon, Adjunct Senior Fellow for Human Rights at the Council on Foreign Relations.
The G8 pledged new aid to Tunisia and Egypt to help their transition to democracy, but it will be a challenge to turn the aid into desperately needed jobs and an investment-friendly climate, says Mideast expert Jane Kinninmont.
In a piece for the Weekly Standard, Ellen Bork writes that Washington needs to revive its relations with Cairo in order to reignite the transition from dictatorship to democracy that has stalled in Egypt since Mubarak ceded power more than three months ago.
Steven A. Cook argues that Egypt's leaders must ensure the prosecution of Hosni Mubarak does not distract from the need to address the country's bigger problem: its increasingly dire economic condition.
Isobel Coleman, Director of the Council on Foreign Relations' Civil Society, Markets, and Democracy Initiative, discusses new initiatives announced by President Obama in support of the democratic transitions in Egypt and Tunisia, including trade, investment, debt forgiveness, and loan guarantees.
The Council on Foreign Relations' David Rockefeller Studies Program—CFR's "think tank"—is home to more than seventy full-time, adjunct, and visiting scholars and practitioners (called "fellows"). Their expertise covers the world's major regions as well as the critical issues shaping today's global agenda. Download the printable CFR Experts Guide.
The authors argue that the United States has responded inadequately to the rise of Chinese power and recommend placing less strategic emphasis on the goal of integrating China into the international system and more on balancing China's rise.
Campbell evaluates the implications of the Boko Haram insurgency and recommends that the United States support Nigerian efforts to address the drivers of Boko Haram, such as poverty and corruption, and to foster stronger ties with Nigerian civil society.
Koblentz argues that the United States should work with other nuclear-armed states to manage threats to nuclear stability in the near term and establish processes for multilateral arms control efforts over the longer term.
Learn more about CFR’s mission and its work over the past year in the 2014 Annual Report. The Annual Report spotlights new initiatives, high-profile events, and authoritative scholarship from CFR experts, and includes a message from CFR President Richard N. Haass. Read and download »