Democratic revolutionaries always confront the same problem: how to replace the old order without replicating its flaws. A new biography of the French revolutionary Maximilien Robespierre's reveals that today's radicals might learn from Robespierre's failure to resolve that dilemma.
See more in Political Movements and Protests; History and Theory of International Relations; France
As Europe emerges from economic crisis, a larger challenge remains: finally turning the eurozone into an optimal currency area, with economies similar enough to sustain a single monetary policy.
See more in Financial Crises; EU
Armand-Jean du Plessis, better known to history as Cardinal Richelieu (1585–1642), spent most of his career contending for and then exercising control over a deeply divided, indebted, and dysfunctional superpower.
See more in France
Intelligent observers of Europe in the 1930s thought its future belonged to communism or fascism and would have ridiculed the notion that decades later the entire continent would be democratic.
See more in Global Governance; Europe
Most pundits argue the eurozone has only two options: break up or create a fiscal union to match its monetary one.
See more in EU; Financial Crises
President Viktor Yanukovych has led Ukraine, no stranger to crisis, into yet another round of turmoil.
See more in Rule of Law; Ukraine
China is hardly the first great power to make authoritarian development look attractive. As Jonathan Steinberg's new biography of Bismarck shows, Wilhelmine Germany did it with ease.
See more in Germany; History and Theory of International Relations
Steven A. Cook discusses Turkish domestic politics after the uprisings.
See more in Political Movements and Protests; Turkey
Steven A. Cook says the Turkish model of military rule is wrong for Egypt.
See more in Political Movements and Protests; Egypt; Turkey; Politics and Strategy
Obama's former auto czar explains the key to Germany's export boom -- and how the United States can emulate it.
See more in Germany; Industrial Policy
European politicians are worried about managing fiscal stabilization, but strict spending limits could destroy what little is left of the EU's political legitimacy.
See more in EU; Financial Crises
Germany's recent debate regarding immigration is missing an important reality.
See more in Germany; Immigration
Turkey's ruling party is sometimes criticized for being Islamist or ideological, but its policies remain essentially nationalist and commercially opportunistic.
See more in Turkey; Politics and Strategy
In Reset, Stephen Kinzer argues that the United States should partner with Iran and Turkey to promote democracy and combat extremism in the Middle East. Although it is hard to imagine Iran as a friend of Washington, Turkey is ready to play that role.
See more in Turkey; United States; Iran
On becoming president of Ukraine, Viktor Yanukovych immediately took actions that undermined democracy and aligned Ukraine closely with Russia.
See more in Democratization; Ukraine
As the United States and Europe face common threats around the globe, the time has come to break down the bureaucratic barrier between the European Union and NATO. Today's challenges require the hard power of NATO and the soft power of the EU.
See more in NATO; EU
With the Lisbon Treaty now in effect, the European Union has more power to implement foreign policy decisions -- on paper, at least.
See more in United States; EU
Turkey hopes to be a global power, but it has not yet become even the regional player that the ruling AKP declares it to be.
See more in Religion; Turkey
Twenty years after the revolutions of 1989 brought down communism, a fresh crop of books attempts to unpack this epic story.
See more in History and Theory of International Relations; Europe
Under the leadership of the Justice and Development Party (AKP), Turkey's foreign policy is becoming more Islamic. Can the country's history of cooperation with the West survive?
See more in Turkey