Europe's social democrats hoped that the 2008 economic meltdown would vindicate their politics and strengthen their hand. But they failed to see how badly they had damaged their brand by compromising on core principles during the previous two decades. To find their way forward, they must return to their roots.
See more in Europe; Congresses, Parliaments, National Legislatures
For decades, World War II suffused the hearts and minds of the American generation that experienced it as "the good war," in which Allied virtue eventually triumphed over fascist evil.
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Despite his innate caution and usually sound political instincts, British Prime Minister David Cameron is gambling with his country's future.
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To succeed in the twenty-first century, the European Union needs to move forward now toward greater integration. This is how to do it.
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Poland's minister of foreign affairs speaks with Foreign Affairs about his country's history, its future, and its place in Europe.
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Pope Benedict XVI made reaching out to other faiths and promoting Christian unity hallmarks of his tenure. Pope Francis will continue this work, not only because he has a history of facilitating religious dialogue, but also because global Catholicism requires it.
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Foreign policy realists have long found inspiration in the ideas of Lord Castlereagh, who served as British foreign secretary during and after the Napoleonic Wars.
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Somewhat overshadowed by his longtime ally, Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan, Turkish President Abdullah Gul has begun to carve out a more independent, progressive path.
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While the grim effects of the 2008 financial crisis still resonate across the globe, the recession wasn't all bad: it triggered fundamental economic restructuring, and the result is a U.S. economy poised to emerge stronger than it was before.
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With its commandments and parables, its kings and its prophets, the Hebrew Bible has served as a reference point for Western politics for centuries. Almost every kind of political movement, it seems, has drawn its own message from the text.
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After World War II, Europe began a process of peaceful political unification unprecedented there and unmatched anywhere else.
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The euro's naysayers have it all wrong.
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Germany seems like Europe's lone island of fiscal stability, but trouble lurks under its impressive export-fueled growth.
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As a referendum on Scotland's independence looms, the question of the region's place in the United Kingdom has become the most pressing issue in British politics.
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If the eurozone splinters, it will have been an avoidable disaster.
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Democratic revolutionaries always confront the same problem: how to replace the old order without replicating its flaws. A new biography of the French revolutionary Maximilien Robespierre's reveals that today's radicals might learn from Robespierre's failure to resolve that dilemma.
See more in Political Movements and Protests; History and Theory of International Relations; France
As Europe emerges from economic crisis, a larger challenge remains: finally turning the eurozone into an optimal currency area, with economies similar enough to sustain a single monetary policy.
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Armand-Jean du Plessis, better known to history as Cardinal Richelieu (1585–1642), spent most of his career contending for and then exercising control over a deeply divided, indebted, and dysfunctional superpower.
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Intelligent observers of Europe in the 1930s thought its future belonged to communism or fascism and would have ridiculed the notion that decades later the entire continent would be democratic.
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Most pundits argue the eurozone has only two options: break up or create a fiscal union to match its monetary one.
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