Europe

Foreign Affairs Article

The Nordic Model

Author: Niklas Zennstrom

A native of Jarfalla, Sweden, Niklas Zennstrom studied business, engineering physics, and computer science at Uppsala University and the University of Michigan. In the mid-1990s, while heading up the Danish division of the Swedish telecommunications firm Tele2, he hired Janus Friis to run customer support, and soon the two of them decided to collaborate as entrepreneurs.

See more in Europe; Innovation

Foreign Affairs Article

The G-Word

Author: Thomas de Waal

One hundred years ago this April, the Ottoman Empire began a brutal campaign of deporting and destroying its ethnic Armenian community, whom it accused of supporting Russia, a World War I enemy. More than a million Armenians died.

See more in Armenia; Genocide

Foreign Affairs Article

Nuclear Waste

Authors: James Blackwell and Barry Blechman

Barry Blechman and Russell Rumbaugh (“Bombs Away,” July/August 2014) have revived an old argument: U.S. tactical nuclear weapons are militarily useless, and so there is no reason for Washington to keep them in Europe.

See more in Europe; Defense and Security

Primary Sources

Submission by Denmark to the UN Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS)

UN Convention on the Law of the Sea Treaty covers a variety of ocean-usage issues such as transit, mining, research, pollution, and resource management and sets out guidelines for nations. Territorial claims can be submitted to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf. On December 15,  2014, Denmark and Greenland submitted a claim to part of the Arctic, including the North Pole, which Russia and Canada each claim as their territory.

See more in Arctic; Denmark; Oceans; Territorial Disputes

Foreign Affairs Article

Misrule of the Few

Author: Pavlos Eleftheriadis

Just a few years ago, Greece came perilously close to defaulting on its debts and exiting the eurozone. Today, thanks to the largest sovereign bailout in history, the country’s economy is showing new signs of life.

See more in Greece; Economics

Op-Ed

Europe’s Dodgy Bank Stress Tests

Authors: Benn Steil and Dinah Walker
Wall Street Journal

Benn Steil and Dinah Walker analyze the market reaction to the publication of the European Central Bank's long-awaited bank stress test results. The ECB's coddling of stress-tested banks — through the use of inflated inflation estimates and generous treatment of tax offsets against future profits which may never arise — precipitated a sell-off of bank stocks in a period when broad European indexes were up significantly. Unlike with the successful 2009 U.S. stress tests, there is no credible backstop of public funds available for Eurozone bank recapitalization, which would account for the ECB's reluctance to draw attention to the sector's undercapitalization.

 

See more in Europe; Banks and Banking

Article

The President Who Ate Turkey

Author: Steven A. Cook
Politico Magazine

In evaluating Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan’s first ninety days in office, CFR’s Steven Cook writes that Erdogan has become so power-hungry that he is expanding the powers of the presidency that ever before. As Erdogan makes himself indispensable to all areas of Turkish politics, the more he is rolling back democracy.

See more in Turkey; Presidents and Chiefs of State

Primary Sources

Guidelines on the Implementation of the European Union's Judgment on “Google Spain and Inc v. Agencia Espanola de Proteccion de Datos (AEPD) and Mario Costeja Gonzalez”

On November 26, 2014, the European Union adopted guidelines for search engines to use when deciding whether to remove, upon request, specific articles from search results for a person's name, in accordance with EU data privacy laws. These privacy laws are also referred to as "the right to be forgotten," for citizens to request that searches for their names not surface particular results.

See more in EU; Internet Policy; Privacy