Primary Sources

Wales Summit Declaration

This document was issued on September 5, 2014, after a summit with NATO leaders which addressed the instability in Europe between Russia and the Ukraine and the threat of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL). The declaration includes increased sanctions against Russia and a rapid-reaction force based in Eastern Europe to act against moves from the Russian military.

See more in Russian Federation; NATO; Ukraine


Media Conference Call: The Future of NATO

Speakers: Michael A. McFaul and Ivo H. Daalder

Listen to Ivo Daalder, former U.S. permanent representative to NATO and president of the Chicago Council on Global Affairs and Michael McFaul, former U.S. ambassador to Russia and professor of political science at Stanford University discuss NATO's role in addressing global challenges, including Afghanistan, Ukraine, and ISIS.

See more in Russian Federation; Ukraine; NATO; Regional Security


Why NATO Should Eliminate its Tactical Nukes, Despite Russian Belligerence

Authors: Hans M. Kristensen and Adam Mount
Bulletin of Atomic Scientists

Adam Mount and Hans Kristensen argue that tactical nuclear bombs in Europe are no longer useful for defense, deterrance, or assurance. They have had little effect on Russian President Vladimir Putin's transgressions in Eastern Europe and instead detract from more useful defense initiatives.

See more in Europe; NATO; Nonproliferation, Arms Control, and Disarmament


NATO's Brave New World

Janine Davidson interviewed by Bernard Gwertzman

With crises brewing in Ukraine and the Middle East, the transatlantic alliance must develop new capabilities to address the rising threat of unconventional warfare, says CFR's Janine Davidson.

See more in Ukraine; NATO


The U.S. Needs a More Ambitious Role in Ukraine and Gaza

Author: Richard N. Haass
Washington Post

In Ukraine, the United States seeks an outcome that may not be achievable; in Gaza, U.S. policy needs to transcend the immediate crisis and recast the basic dynamics of the conflict. Finding out whether these crises have seeds of opportunity within them is the purpose of foreign policy, writes CFR President Richard N. Haass.

See more in Ukraine; Palestine; Diplomacy and Statecraft


Erdogan's Grip on Turkey

Henri J. Barkey interviewed by Zachary Laub

Turkey's first-ever presidential election is expected to elevate Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan to head of state. The current premier, who faces a divided populace and regional conflicts, is likely to bring executive authority to a largely ceremonial post, says expert Henri Barkey.

See more in Turkey; Elections

Primary Sources

European Commission: Towards an Integrated Approach to Cultural Heritage for Europe

The European Commission released this report in July 2014, "to help Member States and stakeholders to make the most of the significant support for heritage available under EU instruments, progress towards a more integrated approach at national and EU level." It discusses the importance of preserving cultural heritage of individual states and Europe as a whole, for social cohesion, inter-cultural dialogue, and economic growth.

See more in EU; Society and Culture