Iraq

Article

Testing the Surge: Why Did Violence Decline in Iraq in 2007?

Authors: Stephen D. Biddle, Jeffrey A. Friedman, and Jacob Shapiro
International Security

Examining the decline of violence in Iraq at the end of 2007, Stephen Biddle, Jeffrey A. Friedman, and Jacob Shapiro argue, "A synergistic interaction between the surge and the [Sunni] Awakening was required for violence to drop as quickly and widely as it did: both were necessary; neither was sufficient."

See more in Wars and Warfare; Defense and Security; Iraq; United States

Contingency Planning Memorandum

Renewed Violence in Iraq

Author: Douglas A. Ollivant

Though violence in Iraq has fallen to its lowest level since 2003, internal and regional dynamics threaten its stability. Douglas Ollivant, senior fellow at the New America Foundation, , argues that despite the U.S. military withdrawal, the United States has a significant stake in helping Iraq overcome threats of ethnosectarian violence and a breakdown of constitutional order.

See more in Iraq; Nation Building; Defense and Security

Foreign Affairs Article

Deterrence Lessons From Iraq

Author: Amatzia Baram

Debates about the possibility of containing a nuclear Iran often hinge on judgments of whether the regime there is rational. But as a wealth of recently released Iraqi documents about Saddam Hussein's tumultuous reign in Iraq show, even an arguably rational leader can be unreasonable -- and very hard to deter.

See more in Global Governance; Iraq

Foreign Affairs Article

Is Iraq on Track?

Authors: Antony Blinken, Norman Ricklefs, and Ned Parker

Iraq is hardly the failed state that Ned Parker portrayed in these pages, argues Antony Blinken, the U.S. vice president's national security adviser. Norman Ricklefs sees Iraq's politics becoming more moderate and less sectarian. Parker replies that despite these improvements, Baghdad still violates human rights and ignores the rule of law.

See more in Iraq; Politics and Strategy; Rule of Law

Must Read

OpenDemocracy: The Resistible Rise of Nuri al-Maliki

Author: Toby Dodge

When faced with a rising tide of violence, largely caused by their own policy mistakes, the U.S. occupation embarked on the reconstitution of an Iraqi military. The resultant Iraqi security forces, under the control of Nuri al-Maliki, are today on their way to occupying the same role as the armed forces of the Ba'athist regime, writes Toby Dodge.

See more in Iraq; Nation Building; Defense and Security

Primary Sources

UN Security Council Resolution 699, Iraq

UN Security Council Resolution 699 was adopted on June 17, 1991. The resolution gave the IAEA and the UN Special Commission (UNSCOM) authority to conduct inspections for weapons in Iraq and destroy, remove or render the weapons harmless. UNSCOM was replaced in 1999 with UN Monitoring Verification and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC).

See more in Weapons of Mass Destruction; Iraq