Polar Regions

Primary Sources

Declaration of the Establishment of the Arctic Council, 1996

With this agreement (also known as the Ottawa Declaration) the Arctic Council was established on September 19, 1996, by Canada, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Russia, Sweden, and the United States. The Arctic Council is a forum to promote collaboration among the Arctic States, Arctic Indigenous communities, and other Arctic inhabitants on issues such as sustainable development and environmental protection.

See more in Arctic; Environmental Policy; Ethnicity, Minorities, and National Identity

Primary Sources

Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy

This strategy, also known as the Finnish Initiative, was signed on June 14, 1991 by Canada, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, the USSR, and the United States, five years before the founding of the Arctic Council. The strategy aims to monitor, protect, promote sustainable development in the Arctic region and recognize the rights of indigenous peoples in relation to environmental issues.

See more in Europe; Arctic; Environmental Policy