Unlike its Arctic neighbors, the United States is failing to take full advantage of the tremendous economic potential of the Arctic region. Captain Melissa Bert argues for U.S. ratification of the Law of the Sea Convention; international polar shipping standards; and an aircraft, icebreaker, and shore-based infrastructure acquisition program funded by Arctic oil and gas lease proceeds.
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The U.S. Government Accountability Office released report 14-299 to congressional requesters in March 2014. The report discusses "(1) current commercial maritime activity in the U.S. Arctic and anticipated activity in the next 10 years, (2) actions taken by government entities in support of planning and developing U.S. Arctic maritime infrastructure, and (3) federal interagency efforts to identify and prioritize Arctic maritime-infrastructure investments."
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Department of Defense released their Arctic Strategy in November 2013, following the National Arctic Strategy released by the White House in May 2013. The strategy analyzes the security environment in the region.
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On October 16, 2013, the Foreign Ministers of Australia, France, New Zealand, the United States and The Commissioner for Maritime Affairs and Fisheries of the European Union released a joint statement on establishing marine protected areas in Southern Ocean, in the Ross Sea Region and in East Antarctica, for scientific research and ocean conservation.
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This strategy states the Canadian government's priorities in the Arctic, including economic and social development, environmental protection, governance, and Canadian sovereignty.
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Coast Guard Commandant Admiral Robert Papp released this maritime governance document on May 21, 2013, which will "guide our efforts in the region over the next 10 years" based on "three key objectives: improving awareness, modernizing governance, and broadening partnerships."
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President Barack Obama signed this strategy on May 10, 2013, ahead of June 2013 meetings with Alaska natives, Alaska officials, and other Arctic stakeholders.
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The Premier of Greenland and representatives of Canada, Denmark, Norway, Russia, and the United States held a conference on May 28, 2008 in Ilulissat, Greenland. They agreed upon this declaration about the sovereignty of the Arctic region and how the five nations bordering the Arctic Ocean can address the effects of climate change in the region.
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In May 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed its appraisal of possible future additions to the worldwide oil and gas reserves from resources in the Arctic, which could be recovered using existing technologies.
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With this agreement (also known as the Ottawa Declaration) the Arctic Council was established on September 19, 1996, by Canada, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Russia, Sweden, and the United States. The Arctic Council is a forum to promote collaboration among the Arctic States, Arctic Indigenous communities, and other Arctic inhabitants on issues such as sustainable development and environmental protection.
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The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty "was signed in Madrid on October 4, 1991 and entered into force in 1998. It designates Antarctica as a 'natural reserve, devoted to peace and science' ".
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This strategy, also known as the Finnish Initiative, was signed on June 14, 1991 by Canada, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, the USSR, and the United States, five years before the founding of the Arctic Council. The strategy aims to monitor, protect, promote sustainable development in the Arctic region and recognize the rights of indigenous peoples in relation to environmental issues.
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General Secretary of the Community Party in the Soviet Union Mikhail Gorbachev spoke in Murmansk on October 1, 1967, at the ceremonial meeting on the occasion of the presentation of the order of Lenin (the Soviet Union's highest honor for service to the State) and the gold star to the city of Murmansk. This speech is often credited as the basis for intergovernmental cooperation in the Arctic.
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The Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) was adopted on May 20, 1980 and entered into force on April 7, 1982.
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News, maps, scientific research, international relations, and more resources about the Arctic and polar regions.
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The northern reaches of the planet are melting at a pace few nations can afford to ignore, yielding potentially lucrative returns in energy, minerals, and shipping. But debate is mounting over whether the Arctic can be developed sustainably and peaceably. Teaching notes by Lawson Brigham, Distinguished Professor of Geography and Arctic Policy, University of Alaska Fairbanks.
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