As the North Pole’s ice cap gives way to global warming, countries bordering the formerly inaccessible Arctic are now vying to claim its untapped resources.
The UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change reports on the rapid rates of warming in recent years in the sub-regions of the Arctic and Antarctic.
Ice, snow and climate change are closely linked. The Global Outlook for Ice and Snow investigates those connections, the current situation of ice and snow and the global significance of changes, now and in the years to come.
NOAA has published a report on the decline in Arctic snow and ice coverage.
This report by World Wildlife Fund catalogues the damaging effects of climate change on glaciers and offers possible solutions.
"The Arctic Human Development Report is the first comprehensive assessment of human well-being covering the entire Arctic region."
See more in Antarctica
With this agreement (also known as the Ottawa Declaration) the Arctic Council was established on September 19, 1996, by Canada, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Russia, Sweden, and the United States. The Arctic Council is a forum to promote collaboration among the Arctic States, Arctic Indigenous communities, and other Arctic inhabitants on issues such as sustainable development and environmental protection.
The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty "was signed in Madrid on October 4, 1991 and entered into force in 1998. It designates Antarctica as a 'natural reserve, devoted to peace and science' ".
This strategy, also known as the Finnish Initiative, was signed on June 14, 1991 by Canada, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, the USSR, and the United States, five years before the founding of the Arctic Council. The strategy aims to monitor, protect, promote sustainable development in the Arctic region and recognize the rights of indigenous peoples in relation to environmental issues.
General Secretary of the Community Party in the Soviet Union Mikhail Gorbachev spoke in Murmansk on October 1, 1967, at the ceremonial meeting on the occasion of the presentation of the order of Lenin (the Soviet Union's highest honor for service to the State) and the gold star to the city of Murmansk. This speech is often credited as the basis for intergovernmental cooperation in the Arctic.
The Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) was adopted on May 20, 1980 and entered into force on April 7, 1982.
As Arctic sea ice continues to melt, this November marked the close of the longest Arctic sailing and shipping season ever recorded. Please join Scott Borgerson and Paula Dobriansky to discuss the economic, environmental, and security implications of a changing Arctic region and its significance for the United States.
Please join Icelandic president Ólafur Ragnar Grímsson to discuss the international economic, environmental, and security implications of a changing Arctic region.
Segal offers recommendations for cooperation on issues such as encryption, data localization, and cybersecurity.
Knopf argues that the only remaining path for South Sudan is for an international transitional administration to run the country for a finite period.
The U.S. relationship with Israel is in trouble. Blackwill and Gordon offer six core policy proposals to repair, redefine, and invigorate the partnership.
The definitive account of the secret war in Laos, which forever changed the CIA from a relatively small spying agency into an organization with vast paramilitary powers. More
CFR President Haass argues for an updated global operating system to address challenges from terrorism to climate change. More
Alden provides an enlightening history of the last four decades of U.S. trade policies and a blueprint for how to keep the United States competitive in a globalized economy. More
Learn more about CFR’s mission and its work over the past year in the 2016 Annual Report. The Annual Report spotlights new initiatives, high-profile events, and authoritative scholarship from CFR experts, and includes a message from CFR President Richard N. Haass.
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