Sub-Saharan Africa's GDP has grown five percent a year since 2000 and is expected to grow even faster in the future. Although pessimists are quick to point out that this growth has followed increases in commodities prices, the success of recent political reforms and the increased openness of African societies give the region a good chance of sustaining its boom for years to come.
See more in Sub-Saharan Africa, Economic Development
Despite the fall of the Qaddafi regime in Libya, humanitarian intervention still has plenty of critics.
See more in Libya, Somalia
John Campbell says diplomacy and democracy--not firepower--is the best way to undermine Nigeria's growing Islamist threat.
See more in Nigeria, Religion, Terrorism
In looking at the successful resolution of the political standoff in Côte d'Ivoire, most commentators have focused on the role of France and the UN.
See more in Ivory Coast, Democracy and Human Rights
Depending on how locals and outsiders react to events in Sudan, the secession referendum scheduled for January could trigger either the country's partition or a new explosion of violence.
See more in Sudan, Society and Culture
Washington's repeated attempts to bring peace to Somalia with state-building initiatives have failed, even backﬁred.
See more in Somalia
Although the war in Congo officially ended in 2003, two million people have died since. One of the reasons is that the international community's peacekeeping efforts there have not focused on the local grievances in eastern Congo, especially those over land, that are fueling much of the broader tensions. Until they do, the nation's security and that of the wider Great Lakes region will remain uncertain.
See more in Rep. of Congo
While the crisis in Darfur simmers, the larger problem of Sudan's survival as a state is becoming increasingly urgent. Old tensions between the Arabs of the Nile River valley, who have held power for a century, and marginalized groups on the country's periphery are turning into a national crisis. Engagement with Khartoum may be the only way to avert another civil war in Sudan, and even that may not be enough.
See more in Sudan
Nigeria's elections last April were among the most seriously flawed in the country's history, thanks largely to the manipulations of the U.S.-backed ruling party. With Nigerians increasingly clamoring for accountability, Washington's continuing support could generate more unrest -- and could pose a risk both to oil supplies coming out of Nigeria and to the stability of West Africa.
See more in Nigeria, Democracy and Human Rights
See more in Sudan
See more in Sudan, National Security and Defense
The intervention in Somalia was not an abject failure; an estimated 100,000 lives were saved. But its mismanagement should be an object lesson for peacekeepers in Bosnia and on other such missions. No large intervention, military or humanitarian, can remain neutral or assuredly brief in a strife-torn failed state. Nation-building, the rebuilding of a state's basic civil institutions, is required in fashioning a self-sustaining body politic out of anarchy. In the future, the United States, the United Nations, and other intervenors should be able to declare a state "bankrupt" and go in to restore civic order and foster reconciliation.
See more in Somalia, Humanitarian Intervention
The mistakes of the U.S. intervention in Somalia should not obscure its successes: a humanitarian tragedy was averted, and the political landscape was improved.
See more in Somalia
These teaching notes, by author and CFR Senior Fellow John Campbell, feature discussion questions and additional projects for educators to supplement the use of the CFR book Nigeria: Dancing on the Brink in the classroom. In this book, Ambassador Campbell examines the country's postcolonial past and offers policy options for the United States to help promote political, social, and economic development in Nigeria.
See more in Nigeria, Elections, Economic Development, Society and Culture
This module features teaching notes by Independent Consultant for International Development and Foreign Policy Anthony W. Gambino, author of Congo: Securing Peace, Sustaining Progress, along with other resources to supplement the text. This Council Special Report addresses the country's social, economic, and security challenges and recommends two priorities for U.S. policy: combating insecurity in the east and promoting sustainable development.
See more in Democratic Rep. of Congo, International Peace and Security
This module features teaching notes and supplemental resources for Toward an Angola Strategy: Prioritizing U.S.-Angola Relations, a report of an Independent Commission sponsored by the Council on Foreign Relations Center for Preventive Action. This report argues that it is in the interest of the United States to help develop a sustainable and lasting peace in Angola.
See more in Angola, Conflict Prevention
This module features teaching notes by former CFR senior fellow Lee Feinstein, the author of Darfur and Beyond, along with other resources to supplement the text. In the report, Feinstein argues that the new UN secretary-general should take the General Assembly's endorsement of responsibility to protect as a mandate and outlines steps the United States and others must follow to bolster UN action.
See more in Sub-Saharan Africa, International Law, International Peace and Security
The January 9 referendum on southern Sudan's secession is expected to go smoothly, but some experts caution that disputes over oil and land, and the south's volatility, could mean a violent transition.
See more in Sudan, Democracy and Human Rights
The International Criminal Court has issued a warrant for the arrest of Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir for abuses committed in Darfur. The historic move augurs further upheaval for troubled Sudan.
See more in Sudan, International Criminal Courts and Tribunals
After a year of electoral turmoil in Kenya, Zimbabwe, and Guinea, tiny Ghana managed to run a free and fair presidential election. Is it an anomaly, or a trend the outside world can encourage?
See more in Ghana, Elections