"Darfur's combatants, particularly the Sudanese government, have effectively neutered the U.N. peacekeeping mission, undermining its capacity to fulfill its primary duty to protect nearly 2 million civilians displaced by Sudan's genocide. During the past year alone, more than 500,000 terrified men, women, and children have poured into the region's already overcrowded refugee camps."
"China has long maintained a no-strings-attached approach to doing business in Africa, with little involvement in conflict resolution. But the friction in recent years between Sudan and South Sudan, and now within South Sudan, has resulted in a marked change because of China's interest in maintaining its oil supply."
A recent agremeent between Sudan and South Sudan to restart oil exports is likely to improve the macroeconomic situations of the countries, while paving the way for future negotiations over land disputes, says expert Alex de Waal.
Speakers: George Clooney, John Prendergast, Andudu Adam Elnail, and Omer Ismail Presider: Ann Curry
Following their return from South Sudan with the Enough Project, George Clooney and John Prendergast assess the in-country situation in the year since southern Sudan's independence referendum, with Andudu Adam Elnail, Anglican bishop of Kadugli, Sudan, and Omer Ismail, Darfur activist and senior adviser at the Enough Project.
The Darfur Genocide Accountability Act of 2005 (H.R. 1424) was a proposed bill to "impose sanctions against perpetrators of crimes against humanity and genocide in Darfur, Sudan, and for other purposes". It was introduced on March 17, 2005; the bill did not become law though parts of it appeared in the Darfur Peace and Accountability Act (H.R. 3127/S. 1462), that was signed into law in 2006.
The process that led to South Sudan's independence offers lessons for avoiding a new, devastating conflict in the region and underscores the importance of sustained and vigorous U.S. diplomacy, writes CFR's Payton Knopf from the new country's capital.
South Sudan's independence July 9 could encourage secession efforts elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa, but elites in those countries will likely stymie those attempts at challenging colonial borders, at least for now.
Hostilities in Sudan might be relieved by a deal hammered out by former South African president Thabo Mbeki, but ethnic and religious divides, resource battles, and looming southern independence remain contentious issues, says CFR's John Campbell.
Princeton N. Lyman, U.S. senior adviser for North-South negotiations at the U.S. Department of State, discusses Southern Sudan's unanimous vote to secede from the North, as part of CFR's Religion and Foreign Policy Conference Call series.
The Sudan referendum now underway will likely result in the south's independence, but unresolved disputes and population shifts require the Obama administration's continued intense diplomatic and humanitarian engagement, says CFR's John Campbell.
The January 9 referendum on southern Sudan's secession is expected to go smoothly, but some experts caution that disputes over oil and land, and the south's volatility, could mean a violent transition.