Francis Fukuyama shot to fame with a 1989 essay called "The End of History?" which he expanded into a 1992 book, The End of History and the Last Man. His thesis was a reworking of the "end of ideology" argument propounded in the 1950s by Daniel Bell and others, with an even more emphatic twist.
See more in Wars and Warfare; History and Theory of International Relations; Global
Throughout 2011, a rhythmic chant echoed across the Arab lands: "The people want to topple the regime."
See more in Political Movements and Protests; Middle East and North Africa
In 2007, the World Bank was in crisis. Some saw conflicts over its leadership. Others blamed the institution itself.
See more in International Finance
Last August, the Republican presidential contender Mitt Romney performed what has become a quadrennial rite of passage in American presidential politics: he delivered a speech to the annual convention of the Veterans of Foreign Wars.
See more in Defense and Security; Wars and Warfare
Nine years after U.S. troops toppled Saddam Hussein and just a few months after the last U.S. soldier left Iraq, the country has become something close to a failed state.
See more in Wars and Warfare; Iraq
The United States, facing deepening economic and fiscal woes at home, is preparing to withdraw from Afghanistan.
See more in Wars and Warfare; Afghanistan
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted in 1948, articulates the idea that it is wrong to exclude any member of the human species from the circle of moral concern.
See more in Environmental Policy; Global
Nearly 90 percent of the world's economy is fueled every year by digging up and burning about four cubic miles of the rotted remains of primeval swamp goo
See more in Energy Policy; Oil; Global
James M. Lindsay discusses the political calculations behind President Obama's State of the Union address.
See more in United States; Presidents and Chiefs of State; Elections
Abandoning counterinsurgency doctrine after Afghanistan would doom the U.S. military to irrelevance and impotence, writes Christopher Sims and Fernando Luján. Not so, says Bing West; like it or not, the United States will be much less ambitious in future wars.
See more in Afghanistan; Defense and Security
Selections from the Foreign Affairs archives tracing the ideological battles of the past century and the evolution of the modern order.
See more in Global Governance; North America
Today's troubles are real, but not ideological: they relate more to policies than to principles. The postwar order of mutually supporting liberal democracies with mixed economies solved the central challenge of modernity, reconciling democracy and capitalism. The task now is getting the system back into shape.
See more in North America; Global; Politics and Strategy; History and Theory of International Relations
Stagnating wages and growing inequality will soon threaten the stability of contemporary liberal democracies and dethrone democratic ideology as it is now understood. What is needed is a new populist ideology that offers a realistic path to healthy middle-class societies and robust democracies.
See more in North America; Financial Regulation; Politics and Strategy; Global
Globalization is widening the gap between what voters demand and what their governments can deliver. Unless the leading democracies can restore their political and economic solvency, the very model they represent may lose its allure.
See more in Globalization; Global
Intelligent observers of Europe in the 1930s thought its future belonged to communism or fascism and would have ridiculed the notion that decades later the entire continent would be democratic.
See more in Global Governance; Europe
Opponents of military action against Iran assume a U.S. military strike would be far more dangerous than simply letting Tehran build a bomb. Not so, argues this former Pentagon defense planner. With a carefully designed strike, Washington could mitigate the costs—or at least bring them down to a bearable level—and spare the region and the world from an unacceptable threat.
See more in Iran; Defense Strategy
The United States gives Pakistan billions of dollars in aid each year. Pakistan returns the favor by harboring terrorists, spreading anti-Americanism, and selling nuclear technology abroad. Washington must tell Islamabad to start cooperating or lose its aid and face outright isolation.
See more in Pakistan; Foreign Aid
As the United States looks ahead, it faces two central challenges in foreign policy: enlarging the zone of prosperity and democracy in the West while balancing the rise of China and allaying the fears of the United States' Asian allies.
See more in North America; Defense and Security
Confidence in the dollar and the euro continues to falter, threatening the international monetary system.
See more in Global; Monetary Policy
China seems to want the yuan to dethrone the dollar as the global reserve currency. But don't expect China's currency to take over anytime soon.
See more in China; Monetary Policy