Shannon K. O’Neil testified before the U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, addressing the ongoing crisis in Venezuela and proposing U.S. policy options aimed at combatting the political, economic, social, and humanitarian crises in the country. She called for targeted sanctions against human rights abusers, drug traffickers, and corrupt officials, a concerted effort to rally Venezuela’s South American neighbors in condemning Venezuela’s authoritarianism, and how the United States should prepare to help a new and more receptive Venezuelan government in the future.
Venezuela is in a state of protracted crisis. Ambassador Patrick Duddy updates his 2012 Contingency Planning Memorandum to reflect the current likelihood of significant political instability in Venezuela and the options available to the United States.
President Barack Obama issued an Executive Order on March 9, 2015, which includes targeted sanctions of individuals who have violated the Venezuela Defense of Human Rights and Civil Society Act of 2014.
Venezuela's opposition is calling for a referendum to recall President Nicolas Maduro amid economic turmoil, soaring crime, and crackdowns on dissent. This Backgrounder explores the roots of the country's crisis.
As the Unasur summit commences in Chile, Julia Sweig suggests, in her column, that the opportunity is ripe for meaningful summitry that might offer Venezuela practical conflict resolution mechanisms while respecting its sovereignty.
As Venezuela descends into strife, Julia Sweig reflects in her column on the multilateral implications of the protests in Caracas and across the country, and suggests a way forward on this crisis for U.S. diplomacy.
Hugo Chávez ruled Venezuela from 1999 until his death in 2013. It is tempting to assume that ties between the United States and Latin America broke during the Chávez era, and that they must now be repaired. The reality, however, is more complex: despite the heated rhetoric coming from Washington and Caracas during Chávez's presidency, bilateral trade quadrupled from $16 billion in 1998 to $64 billion in 2008.
The Venezuelan revolutionary Simon Bolívar has a remarkably elastic legacy. Ever since his death in 1830, Latin American politicians across the political spectrum have claimed to be his rightful heir. What Bolívar left behind, it turns out, was less a coherent set of ideas than an abstract vision of Latin American unity -- a vision that remains impossible today.
Julia E. Sweig argues that Hugo Chavez never fulfilled his more ambitious plans for the region, but the polarizing Venezuelan leader can take at least partial credit for helping redefine South America's institutional architecture.
Hugo Chavez became president in 1999 on a populist platform, but after his "socialist revolution," critics said the country resembled an authoritarian state. This interactive timeline looks back at Chavez's rise to power and the impact of his presidency.
Longtime Venezuelan leader Hugo Chávez's fourth term as president allows for the continuation of his "socialist revolution," but questions over his health remain a wildcard in assessing Venezuela's future.
In Venezuela's upcoming elections, President Hugo Chavez—suffering from poor health—faces his strongest challenger yet. Former ambassador Patrick D. Duddy argues that the United States should prepare for political unrest.
Learn more about CFR’s mission and its work over the past year in the 2016 Annual Report. The Annual Report spotlights new initiatives, high-profile events, and authoritative scholarship from CFR experts, and includes a message from CFR President Richard N. Haass. Read and download »