Venezuela is in a state of protracted crisis. Ambassador Patrick Duddy updates his 2012 Contingency Planning Memorandum to reflect the current likelihood of significant political instability in Venezuela and the options available to the United States.
President Barack Obama issued an Executive Order on March 9, 2015, which includes targeted sanctions of individuals who have violated the Venezuela Defense of Human Rights and Civil Society Act of 2014.
Months after protests rocked Caracas, plummeting oil prices now add to Venezuela's economic woes. The sharp reduction in oil revenue, paired with double-digit inflation, has sparked fears of a default.
As the Unasur summit commences in Chile, Julia Sweig suggests, in her column, that the opportunity is ripe for meaningful summitry that might offer Venezuela practical conflict resolution mechanisms while respecting its sovereignty.
As Venezuela descends into strife, Julia Sweig reflects in her column on the multilateral implications of the protests in Caracas and across the country, and suggests a way forward on this crisis for U.S. diplomacy.
Hugo Chávez ruled Venezuela from 1999 until his death in 2013. It is tempting to assume that ties between the United States and Latin America broke during the Chávez era, and that they must now be repaired. The reality, however, is more complex: despite the heated rhetoric coming from Washington and Caracas during Chávez's presidency, bilateral trade quadrupled from $16 billion in 1998 to $64 billion in 2008.
The Venezuelan revolutionary Simon Bolívar has a remarkably elastic legacy. Ever since his death in 1830, Latin American politicians across the political spectrum have claimed to be his rightful heir. What Bolívar left behind, it turns out, was less a coherent set of ideas than an abstract vision of Latin American unity -- a vision that remains impossible today.
Julia E. Sweig argues that Hugo Chavez never fulfilled his more ambitious plans for the region, but the polarizing Venezuelan leader can take at least partial credit for helping redefine South America's institutional architecture.
Hugo Chavez became president in 1999 on a populist platform, but after his "socialist revolution," critics said the country resembled an authoritarian state. This interactive timeline looks back at Chavez's rise to power and the impact of his presidency.
Longtime Venezuelan leader Hugo Chávez's fourth term as president allows for the continuation of his "socialist revolution," but questions over his health remain a wildcard in assessing Venezuela's future.
In Venezuela's upcoming elections, President Hugo Chavez—suffering from poor health—faces his strongest challenger yet. Former ambassador Patrick D. Duddy argues that the United States should prepare for political unrest.
The Council on Foreign Relations' David Rockefeller Studies Program—CFR's "think tank"—is home to more than seventy full-time, adjunct, and visiting scholars and practitioners (called "fellows"). Their expertise covers the world's major regions as well as the critical issues shaping today's global agenda. Download the printable CFR Experts Guide.
The authors argue that the United States has responded inadequately to the rise of Chinese power and recommend placing less strategic emphasis on the goal of integrating China into the international system and more on balancing China's rise.
Campbell evaluates the implications of the Boko Haram insurgency and recommends that the United States support Nigerian efforts to address the drivers of Boko Haram, such as poverty and corruption, and to foster stronger ties with Nigerian civil society.
Koblentz argues that the United States should work with other nuclear-armed states to manage threats to nuclear stability in the near term and establish processes for multilateral arms control efforts over the longer term.
Learn more about CFR’s mission and its work over the past year in the 2014 Annual Report. The Annual Report spotlights new initiatives, high-profile events, and authoritative scholarship from CFR experts, and includes a message from CFR President Richard N. Haass. Read and download »