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GMF: Romania, Bulgaria, and the EU's Future

by Robin Shepherd
Romania and Bulgaria have entered a European Union that has stalled at a crossroads, says this commentary from the German Marshall Fund of the United States. The paper discusses the various ways the new EU members will influence policymaking in the EU.
Analysis Brief

Bird Flu Makes Gains

by Mary Crane
The deadly H5N1 strain of the avian flu virus has now crept well into Europe—infecting birds in Greece, Bulgaria, Italy, Germany, Slovenia, Croatia, Austria, and Denmark—and now also threatens Africa. Experts are at a loss over how to best tackle what could be an imminent global pandemic.

The Russian Military

by Jonathan Masters
Military power has reemerged as an importantcomponent of Russian foreign policy, which some believe aims to reestablish Russian hegemony in the region, explains this Backgrounder.
Primary Sources

Remarks by Ukrainian President Poroshenko to the U.S. Congress

with Petro Poroshenko
Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko spoke to a joint session of the U.S. Congress on September 18, 2014. He asked for U.S. military assistance and aid in Ukraine's conflict against Russia, referencing mutual protection agreements such as Budapest Memorandums on Security Assurances, 1994 and the EU-Ukraine Association Agreement.

The President Who Ate Turkey

by Steven A. Cook
In evaluating Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogana's first ninety days in office, CFRa's Steven Cook writes that Erdogan has become so power-hungry that he is expanding the powers of the presidency that ever before. As Erdogan makes himself indispensable to all areas of Turkish politics, the more he is rolling back democracy.
Task Force Report

Promoting Sustainable Economies in the Balkans

by Michael B.G. Froman with Steven L. Rattner
The conflict in Kosovo, less than four years after the brutal civil war in Bosnia, was a wake-up call to the international community. The West and others had once again underestimated the powerful forces of ethnic hatred and historical grievances in the Balkans. According to this independent Task Force report, economic reconstruction alone will not be sufficient to bring long-term peace and stability to the Balkan region, although raising living standards could foster sustainable economic growth and reduce political tensions.
Task Force Report

Reconstructing the Balkans

by Charles A. Kupchan with The Honorable Morton I. Abramowitz, Albert Fishlow
The last of the six Balkan Wars of the twentieth century is over, but it is by no means certain that a durable peace is at hand. After vast death, destruction, and savagery lasting almost a decade, can the peoples of the former Yugoslavia live together again in peace? If so, the region will require sustained help and support from the West, which is in the midst of mustering the necessary resources and political will. The purpose of this report is to provide a broad political approach and to highlight the three key components of a comprehensive, long-term strategy that focuses on security, continental integration, and economic and political reform.
Task Force Report

American National Interests and the United Nations

with George Soros
This statement and report - the result of an expert nonpartisan Task Force including UN critics and advocates, Republicans and Democrats, liberals and conservatives - examine whether the United Nations has advanced or hindered the pursuit of U.S. interests in the last five years.