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Primary Sources

Declaration of the Establishment of the Arctic Council, 1996

With this agreement (also known as the Ottawa Declaration) the Arctic Council was established on September 19, 1996, by Canada, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Russia, Sweden, and the United States. The Arctic Council is a forum to promote collaboration among the Arctic States, Arctic Indigenous communities, and other Arctic inhabitants on issues such as sustainable development and environmental protection.
Primary Sources

White House Factsheet on Equal Futures Partnership

On September 24, 2012, Secretary of State Hillary Clinton launched the Equal Futures Partnership of the United States, along with twelve other founding members (Australia, Benin, Bangladesh, Denmark, Finland, Indonesia, Jordan, the Netherlands, Peru, Senegal, and Tunisia; as well as the European Union). The program seeks to break down barriers to women's political and economic participation.
Primary Sources

Helsinki Accords

The Helsinki Accords (also known as the Helsinki Declaration) was the concluding document of the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe in Helsinki, Finland, and is dated August 1, 1975. The United States, Canada, and the majority of European states signed the accords.
Primary Sources

Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy

This strategy, also known as the Finnish Initiative, was signed on June 14, 1991 by Canada, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, the USSR, and the United States, five years before the founding of the Arctic Council. The strategy aims to monitor, protect, promote sustainable development in the Arctic region and recognize the rights of indigenous peoples in relation to environmental issues.
Bio

Mervyn King

Distinguished Fellow

Mervyn King is a professor of economics and law at the Stern and Law Schools at New York University. He was governor of the Bank of England and chairman of the monetary policy and financial policy committees from 2003 to 2013, helping to shape UK monetary policy during the global economic recession. He was previously deputy governor from 1998 to 2003, and served as chief economist and executive director from 1991 to 1998. King was also a nonexecutive director of the bank from 1990 to 1991.

Video

The Emerging Arctic

by Jeremy Sherlick, Hagit Ariav with Scott Borgerson, Michael Byers, Heather Conley, Marlene Laruelle
The northern reaches of the planet are melting at a pace few nations can afford to ignore, yielding potentially lucrative returns in energy, minerals, and shipping. But debate is mounting over whether the Arctic can be developed sustainably and peaceably.
Interactive

The Emerging Arctic

by Jonathan Masters, Robert McMahon, Jeremy Sherlick, Hagit Ariav
The northern reaches of the planet are melting at a pace few nations can afford to ignore, yielding potentially lucrative returns in energy, minerals, and shipping. But debate is mounting over whether the Arctic can be developed sustainably and peaceably.
Blog Post

Corruption: More Than Just an African Reality

Transparency International has just issued its Corruption Perceptions Index 2012. The scale ranges from one hundred ("highly clean") to zero ("highly corrupt.") One hundred-sixty-seven countries...
Backgrounder

The Russian Military

by Jonathan Masters
Military power has reemerged as an importantcomponent of Russian foreign policy, which some believe aims to reestablish Russian hegemony in the region, explains this Backgrounder.