Ten years after 9/11, author Ahmed Rashid discusses U.S. foreign policy in Pakistan and Afghanistan, and why wars in the region cannot be won purely by military force.
IN their shock after Sept. 11, 2001, Americans frequently asked, “Why do they hate us so much?” It wasn't clear just who “they” were — Muslims, Arabs or simply anyone who was not American. The easy answer that many Americans found comforting was equally vague: that “they” were jealous of America's wealth, opportunities, democracy and what have you.
But in this part of the world — in Pakistan, where I live, and in Afghanistan next door, from which the Sept. 11 attacks were directed — those who detested America were much more identifiable, and so were their reasons. They were a small group of Islamic extremists who supported Al Qaeda; a larger group of students studying at madrasas, which had expanded rapidly since the 1980s; and young militants who had been empowered by years of support from Pakistan's military intelligence services to fight against India in Kashmir. They were a tiny minority of Pakistan's 150 million people at the time. In their eyes, America was an imperial, oppressive, heathen power just like the Soviet Union, which they had defeated in Afghanistan.