President-Elect Biden
on Foreign Policy
President-Elect Joe Biden will face a suite of challenges on the global stage, from nuclear tensions with North Korea to coordinating a response to the ongoing pandemic.

Biden has framed supporting the U.S. technology sector as a matter of national security, even as he has sought to confront large tech companies for what he sees as unfair market practices. He has overseen the first, modest efforts in creating a federal approach to the governance of artificial intelligence (AI) and taken steps to slow China’s high-tech development.

  • Biden signed the CHIPS and Science Act in August 2022, directing more than $280 billion in federal funding toward domestic production of advanced technologies and the hardware that underpins their development, such as semiconductors.
  • The same year, the Biden administration published an “AI Bill of Rights” identifying five principles for the responsible deployment of the technology. And in 2023, fifteen leading AI firms agreed to voluntary AI safety commitments, including a pledge to submit their cutting-edge models for government review.
  • In October 2023, he signed an executive order requiring federal agencies to follow a unified framework for the safe use of AI. 
  • Biden has also joined several international efforts to govern AI, including the Hiroshima Process led by the Group of Seven (G7) and a joint declaration that seeks to ensure the technology is “human-centric, trustworthy, and responsible.” China has also signed the latter statement.
  • Biden has imposed several restrictions on Chinese AI development. These include export controls that restrict China’s access to semiconductors and bans on some U.S. investment in Chinese AI companies.
  • In February 2024, Biden signed an executive order aimed at preventing China, Russia, and other “countries of concern” from accessing Americans’ personal data. The measure follows a mandate requiring U.S. cloud service firms to reveal when Chinese companies use their data centers.
  • He unveiled a new National Cybersecurity Strategy in 2023 that urges U.S. companies to take responsibility for ensuring that their systems cannot be hacked and suggests that they could be held legally liable for not protecting “digital infrastructure.” The strategy also called for expanding U.S. military authorization to preempt foreign cyberattacks.  
  • Biden has asked Congress to create legislation strengthening antitrust enforcement that can be used against large technology firms. During his presidency, the Department of Justice has pursued antitrust cases against Apple, Amazon, Google, and other big tech firms.
  • The Biden administration has been challenged in court over its role in asking social media companies to remove content that it considers false and misleading. Critics call these efforts a violation of the First Amendment, and the issue has gone to the Supreme Court to be settled.
  • The Biden administration has cracked down on cryptocurrencies due to concerns over their utility in evading sanctions, laundering money, and financing terrorism. He has directed the Federal Reserve to explore developing a central bank digital currency (CBDC).

Biden has framed China’s rise as a serious challenge. He has criticized its “abusive” trade practices—warning that it may pull ahead of the United States in new technologies—and its human rights record. He says he would mount a more effective pushback against China than Trump and work more closely with allies to pressure Beijing.

  • Biden agrees with Trump that China is breaking international trade rules, unfairly subsidizing Chinese companies, and discriminating against U.S. firms and stealing their intellectual property. He says one million manufacturing jobs have been lost to China.
  • However, he says Trump’s broad tariffs are “erratic” and “self-defeating,” and he instead calls for targeted retaliation against China using existing trade laws and building a united front of allies. He warns that China is making massive investments in energy, infrastructure, and technology that threaten to leave the United States behind.
  • He criticized Trump’s January 2020 “phase one” trade deal with China, calling Beijing “the big winner” and arguing that increased purchases of U.S. agricultural products won’t address China’s “illegal and unfair” economic practices.
  • He has also criticized Trump for accepting China’s assurances about the coronavirus pandemic, and says the Trump administration’s travel ban failed to halt visitors from China. He says he would insist on greater transparency from the Chinese government.
  • He attacked Trump for what he called a weak response to China’s infringement of Hong Kong’s autonomy and democratic processes under Beijing’s new national security law, and he stated that he would step up sanctions on those responsible.
  • He pledges to reinvigorate the United States as a Pacific power by increasing the U.S. naval presence in the Asia-Pacific and deepening ties with countries including Australia, Indonesia, Japan, and South Korea to make it clear to Beijing that Washington “won’t back down.”
  • He told CFR that “the free world” must unite in the face of China’s “high-tech authoritarianism” and that Washington must shape the “rules, norms, and institutions” that will govern the global use of new technologies, such as artificial intelligence. 
  • He has said that China’s corruption and internal divisions mean “they’re not competition for us.” He says deeper U.S.-China cooperation is possible on climate, nuclear weapons, and other issues. He also believes that remaining competitive with China hinges on U.S. innovation and uniting “the economic might of democracies around the world.
  • He believes his vice-presidential experience gives him unique insight into dealing with China’s leadership, saying he has spent more time with Xi Jinping than any other world leader.
  • As a senator, Biden supported China’s 2001 entry into the World Trade Organization, which gave it permanent normal trade relations with the United States. As vice president, he backed the Obama administration’s Asia-Pacific trade deal, the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), arguing it would have helped check China’s influence in the region.
  • He told CFR that China’s detention of more than one million Muslims in the Xinjiang region is “unconscionable.” He says the United States “must speak out,” and that he would support sanctions against the individuals and companies involved, as well as a UN Security Council condemnation.

Biden calls China the biggest national security threat to the United States, pointing to Beijing’s efforts to undermine U.S. alliances in the Indo-Pacific, its assertive stance on Taiwan, and its ability to conduct cyberattacks on critical infrastructure. He has moved to de-risk the United States’ economy from China’s, maintaining several of Trump’s protectionist policies while introducing a raft of his own.

  • Biden calls Chinese President Xi Jinping a “dictator,” but says that the United States should de-risk and not decouple from China. Biden’s administration has placed stringent restrictions on high-tech products that it deems critical to national security.
  • He has retained tariffs imposed by the Trump administration for $360 billion worth of products and introduced a raft of his own, while pressing U.S. partners in the European Union and elsewhere to increase their restrictions on Chinese tech. 
  • He introduced sweeping export controls aimed at curtailing China’s access to semiconductors and other advanced technologies. He also banned some U.S. investment in Chinese high-tech industries. These restrictions followed major legislation that subsidized domestic manufacturing of computer chips, electric vehicle parts, and other new technologies. Firms that produce such goods in China are not eligible for U.S. subsidies.
  • In April 2024, he signed a bill forcing the sale of social media app TikTok, which is owned by a Chinese company. The legislation will ban TikTok if a sale is not completed by 2025. 
  • He has also maintained sanctions on Chinese individuals and entities associated with crackdowns on democracy in Hong Kong and human rights abuses against China’s minority Uyghur Muslims in the Xinjiang region. He signed bipartisan legislation requiring U.S. firms to demonstrate that their supply chains did not include forced labor by Uyghurs.
  • Biden has sought to counter Chinese influence in the Indo-Pacific by building closer ties with U.S. allies in the region, including Australia, Japan, the Philippines, and South Korea. In April 2023, the United States and the Philippines held their largest-ever joint military drills. 
  • Biden has repeatedly said that the United States would defend Taiwan if China attacked, despite a long-standing U.S. policy of “strategic ambiguity” toward the island that China claims as its own. But after each instance, the Biden administration has walked back the comments.
  • In September 2023, Biden added China to the U.S. government’s list of major drug transit or major illicit drug producing countries, citing its contribution to the U.S. fentanyl crisis. That same month, the Department of Justice indicted eight China-based firms for fentanyl-related crimes.
  • Following the first of two meetings between Biden and Xi during Biden’s presidency, the two countries agreed to pursue policies aimed at tripling global renewable energy capacity. China committed to reducing the fossil fuel methane for the first time, but not coal, the dirtiest fuel. 
  • Biden unveiled two programs aimed at building infrastructure in lower-income countries to counter China’s Belt and Road Initiative, which he calls a “debt and noose agreement.”

Biden says climate change is “the greatest threat to our security,” and calls for a “revolution” to address it. He has released a national plan to reduce emissions and invest in new technology and infrastructure. As a senator, he expressed alarm over greenhouse gases, but also supported controversial energy sources such as fracking and so-called clean coal.

  • His climate plan, released in June 2019, calls the Green New Deal a “crucial framework” and likewise advocates for a society-wide effort to reduce emissions, invest in infrastructure, create new jobs, and advance social justice.
  • The plan would commit the U.S. economy to net-zero emissions by 2050. It envisions $1.7 trillion in direct government spending on clean energy. It promises executive action on methane emissions, stricter fuel-economy standards, and nationwide energy efficiency standards. Biden also opposes any new drilling, including fracking, on public lands.
  • It promises a return to the 2015 Paris climate agreement and a diplomatic push to make its targets more ambitious. Biden also wants to use trade policy as a climate tool by putting tariffs on high-carbon products from other countries.
  • It advocates for major reforms in transportation, agriculture, and housing to reduce their carbon footprint and create jobs. 
  • In July 2020, Biden expanded on the 2019 plan, upping his budget proposal to more than $2 trillion in an effort to achieve a carbon-free electricity sector by 2035, invest more in low-income communities and communities of color, build clean infrastructure, and leverage the federal government to purchase zero-emissions vehicles. The proposal also frames this spending as a plank of Biden’s post-pandemic economic recovery plan.
  • He told CFR that he would bar U.S. foreign aid and financing for coal-fired power plants overseas, provide debt relief for countries implementing green policies, and expand Group of Twenty efforts to reduce fossil fuel subsidies worldwide.
  • He touts the record of the Obama administration, including $90 billion for clean energy in the 2009 stimulus law, tighter fuel-economy standards, new regulations on coal-fired power plants, and the negotiation of the Paris accord. 
  • The Obama administration’s “all-of-the-above” energy strategy also supported the fracking boom that helped double U.S. oil production. In 2008, Biden expressed support for clean coal technologies opposed by many environmentalists and declined to vote on the unsuccessful Climate Security Act, the most ambitious emissions-capping legislation to reach the Senate floor.

Biden has made addressing climate change a pillar of his presidency, calling climate change “the ultimate threat to humanity.” He has pursued an ambitious agenda, passing the largest clean energy and climate investment bill in U.S. history, expanding land and water protections, and creating a climate action–based job training program. However, he has also permitted new fossil fuel projects and overseen record-high oil and gas production.

  • On his first day in office, Biden signed executive orders returning the United States to the 2015 Paris Agreement, under which nearly two hundred countries agreed to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions to limit global temperature rise; revoking a presidential permit for construction of the Keystone XL oil pipeline between Canada and the United States; and halting new oil and gas leases on public lands and waters. (That moratorium was later overturned by the courts.) 
  • He has committed to an ambitious goal of achieving a carbon pollution–free power sector by 2035 and a net–zero emissions economy by 2050. Biden’s Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has tightened vehicle emissions standards, though it also narrowed the scope of a pending rule that would exempt existing gas-fired power plants from upcoming carbon emissions regulations.
  • In 2022, Biden signed into law the Inflation Reduction Act (IRA), the largest investment in climate-related policies in U.S. history. The bill budgets roughly $370 billion for emissions-reduction efforts, including tax credits and subsidies for clean energy projects. The IRA builds on the 2021 Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act (IIJA), a $1.2 trillion law to upgrade U.S. infrastructure and spur the adoption of electric vehicles, among other measures. 
  • His administration created the American Climate Corps, a jobs program that aims to train tens of thousands of young people in high-demand skills for careers in climate action and clean energy. The program is modeled after President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s Civilian Conservation Corps.
  • In 2023, his administration reached a multistate deal to redistribute water from the Colorado River, which serves some forty million people. Under the agreement, Arizona, California, and Nevada will draw less from the river in exchange for additional federal funding.
  • He has approved a range of new fossil fuel projects, including an $8 billion oil drilling project in northern Alaska. However, he also announced restrictions on new oil and gas leasing on 13 million acres (5.3 million hectares) of an Alaskan federal petroleum reserve. Under his administration, oil and gas production has continued to grow to historic highs, with the United States becoming the world’s largest crude oil producer. 
  • As part of the IIJA, the Biden administration created the Civil Nuclear Credit Program to invest $6 billion in existing nuclear energy facilities. In March 2024, his administration announced that it will lend $1.5 billion to restart a shuttered nuclear plant in Michigan, the nation’s first such recommissioning.
  • The administration temporarily paused approvals for new export facilities for liquefied natural gas (LNG), a move it says is in line with its climate goals. 

Biden has put forward a national plan to address the pandemic of the new coronavirus disease, COVID-19. He pledges to strengthen presidential leadership and spend “whatever it takes” to expand testing, contact tracing, treatment, and other health services; support the economy; and prepare for future pandemics. He criticizes Trump’s response as “political theater” and promises to return the United States to a position of global leadership on the crisis.

  • Biden has released a pandemic plan with a three-pronged approach: a health response, an economic response, and a global response. He cites his experience as vice president, during which he helped lead the Obama administration’s responses to the 2009 H1N1 pandemic and the 2014–16 Ebola epidemic. The plan would nationalize the coronavirus response, rather than relegate it to state governments as the Trump administration has done.
  • His plan calls for national emergency health-care mobilization that ramps up testing, makes it free, and provides transparency on the resulting data. It also promises to rapidly expand hospital capacity by quickly creating temporary hospitals, in part through the mobilization of Defense Department resources; establish a national corps of at least one hundred thousand contact tracers; and accelerate the creation of vaccines and other treatments. He would also mandate wearing masks in public.
  • The plan promises zero out-of-pocket expenses for anyone who needs coronavirus-related health services of any kind by amending the relevant laws governing both private and public health insurance plans. The plan doesn’t offer a cost estimate, but campaign officials say Biden would spend “whatever it takes” to get the coronavirus crisis under control.
  • It proposes to incentivize businesses to produce more personal protective equipment (PPE) such as masks and gloves. His administration would work with businesses to return some pharmaceutical and medical equipment supply chains back to the United States, after decades of outsourcing much of that production abroad.
  • He promises to lead an expanded global response that would be coordinated by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and would assist vulnerable nations. He pledges to rejoin the World Health Organization and cooperate more closely with the United Nations and other major world players.
  • He says he will restore the White House National Security Council Directorate for Global Health Security and Biodefense, an office within the National Security Council for preparing and coordinating the response to pandemics that the Trump administration disbanded in 2018. He promises to expand staffing and funding for the State Department and other federal agency health programs.
  • He faults Beijing for a lack of transparency in the early stages of the crisis, and says that he would have insisted on sending U.S. health experts to the country.
  • On the economic front, his plan proposes a raft of federal programs to protect workers. These include mandated paid sick leave policies, expanded unemployment benefits, and additional funds for federal food programs, child care programs, and loans to small businesses.
  • It also proposes a new “State and Local Emergency Fund” that will allow governors and mayors to access federal dollars for a range of purposes, including mortgage and rental relief, jobs programs, or direct cash payments to citizens.

Biden has been a major proponent of a strategy he called “counterterrorism plus.” This approach emphasizes fighting terrorist networks in foreign countries using small groups of U.S. special forces and aggressive air strikes instead of large troop deployments.

  • This counterterrorism strategy largely defined the Obama administration’s policy in fighting jihadists and other militant groups around the world, including in Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iraq, West Africa, the Horn of Africa, and the Arabian peninsula, where U.S. drone strikes have rapidly increased. These operations controversially included the direct targeting of militants with U.S. citizenship, such as Anwar al-Awlaki.
  • He opposes Trump’s executive order barring travelers from several majority-Muslim countries, which the Trump administration says is necessary to limit entry of would-be terrorists into the country.
  • He told CFR that U.S. policy must focus on ensuring the remnants of al-Qaeda and the self-proclaimed Islamic State cannot reconstitute themselves.
  • He has supported a number of expansions of federal anti-terrorism authority. He introduced an unsuccessful 1995 law to expand government surveillance powers, much of which was incorporated into the 2001 Patriot Act, which he supported. In 2015, the Obama administration approved the USA Freedom Act, which renewed the Patriot Act with some new restrictions on surveillance.    
  • He was a critic of other federal surveillance measures, voting against updates to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) in 2007 and 2008 that authorized the collection of emails, search histories, and other personal data of U.S. citizens.
  • He says that as vice president, he was an advocate of closing the detention facility at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, which he has called an “advertisement” for recruiting terrorists. Attempts to fully close the facility were blocked by Congress.

Biden says that cyber threats are a growing challenge for U.S. national security, election integrity, and the health of the nation’s democracy. Meanwhile, he thinks government should be pressuring tech companies to reform their practices around privacy, surveillance, and hate speech.

  • As president, he would call a global summit to pressure tech companies to make pledges that they will ensure their platforms “are not empowering the surveillance state, facilitating repression in China and elsewhere, spreading hate, [or] spurring people to violence.
  • He told CFR that the United States should use its foreign assistance to provide the world with alternatives to China’s “dystopian” surveillance technologies. 
  • He says he would work with U.S. allies to develop 5G cellular networks and other advanced technologies to ensure they remain secure from intrusion by U.S. adversaries.
  • He is co-chair of the Transatlantic Commission on Election Integrity, a group founded in 2018 by former U.S. and EU policymakers to combat the shared threat of election hacking, especially by Russia.
  • He has repeatedly warned of the vulnerability of U.S. cyber infrastructure—including transportation networks, electrical grids, and election systems—to attack, sabotage, and infiltration, and calls for greater investment and higher regulatory standards.
  • He warns about the ability of China and Russia to exploit loopholes in the U.S. regulatory system and use the financial industry to launder money to get around the ban on foreign funding of elections.
  • While Biden has called some of the proposals to break up Facebook and other social media giants “premature,” he says the option should be consideredHe argues for the repeal of regulations that exempt Facebook and other online platforms from responsibility for what their users post.

Biden has supported some U.S. military interventions abroad and opposed others. He has often advocated for narrow objectives in the use of force, and he has expressed skepticism over the ability of the United States to reshape foreign societies. He is wary of unilateral efforts, emphasizing the importance of diplomacy and working through alliances and global institutions.

  • He says that force should be used “only to defend our vital interests, when the objective is clear and achievable,” and promises to end what he calls “the forever wars” in Afghanistan and the Middle East. 
  • In 2016, speaking about the use of military force, he argued that “we need a real strong dose of humility about [our] capacity to fundamentally alter circumstances around the world.” He rules out using U.S. troops for any regime-change efforts.
  • He says that the United States has both a moral duty and a security interest to respond with military force to genocide or chemical weapons use around the world. He also favors using force to avoid the disruption of the global oil trade.
  • He told CFR that he would bring U.S. combat troops home from Afghanistan in his first term by launching a high-level diplomatic effort that includes Afghanistan’s neighbors. He favors keeping a small number of special forces and intelligence assets in the country to combat terrorism, while pursuing peace talks with the Taliban. 
  • He supported the 2001 invasion of Afghanistan, but as vice president pushed for troop reductions and a more limited mission. He argues that 2019 reports that U.S. policymakers misled the public about the progress of the Afghan war vindicate his opposition to “nation-building” there.
  • He argues that military spending is too focused on traditional warfare rather than emerging areas for defense such as space and cyberspace. He says the United States must seek to maintain its superiority amid a “return to great power competition” with China and Russia.
  • He supported the 2003 invasion of Iraq, but he now calls it a “mistake” and touts his role in withdrawing 150,000 troops from the country in 2011. 
  • He says he would “reaffirm” the ban on torture and provide more transparency on military operations, particularly as it relates to civilian casualties.
  • He is a strong proponent of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), calling it “the single most important military alliance in the history of the world.” 
  • As vice president, he was against the 2011 intervention in Libya and skeptical of committing U.S. troops to Syria.
  • Biden has criticized the expansion of executive war powers, saying as a candidate for president in 2008 that the use of force without congressional approval, except in the case of an imminent threat, is an impeachable offense. 
  • He promises a new federal initiative to address suicide and mental health issues among veterans that will include increased funding to Veterans Affairs health programs.

Biden is a strong advocate for multilateral cooperation and a longtime champion of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, in 2022, has prompted NATO to reinforce its deterrence and defense posture against Russian President Vladimir Putin’s nuclear saber-rattling. And, in the face of growing great-power competition with China, the Biden administration has sought to shore up U.S. diplomatic and military relations with allies in the Indo-Pacific.

  • His administration’s 2022 National Security Strategy [PDF] broadly maintained the Trump administration’s focus on great-power competition with China and Russia. 
  • Biden has reaffirmed the U.S. commitment to NATO, which he has called “the single most important military alliance in the history of the world.” Following Russia’s invasion of Ukraine in 2022, he supported NATO enlargement by pushing for approval of Finland and Sweden’s accession bids. (Finland and Sweden joined NATO in 2023 and 2024, respectively.) 
  • The Biden administration also formulated an updated Indo-Pacific Strategy [PDF], which pledges to support “a free and open Indo-Pacific.” To that end, Biden has inked a new defense pact with Papua New Guinea and advanced an existing defense agreement with the Philippines. His administration has also deepened security cooperation with Japan and South Korea, and it held the inaugural in-person summit of the so-called Quad—an alliance comprising the United States, Australia, India, and Japan—which aims to counter China in the Indo-Pacific. 
  • Biden also announced a new trilateral pact with Australia and the United Kingdom, known as AUKUS, that seeks to bolster the countries’ allied deterrence and defense capabilities against China, including by supplying Australia with nuclear-powered submarines.
  • The omnibus defense spending bill for fiscal year 2024 authorizes $886 billion for the Pentagon and extends federal authorities’ spying powers, among other measures.
  • Biden has made defending democracy a pillar of his presidency, warning against the rising tide of populism domestically and globally and saying that modern geopolitics is a “battle between democracy and autocracy.” He frames helping Ukraine defend itself against Russia and continuing to back Taiwan as part of this effort. 
  • The administration’s new Strategy Toward Sub-Saharan Africa [PDF] emphasizes democracy protection, and in 2022, a U.S.-Africa Leaders Summit produced commitments to increase U.S. military aid and training to African governments. 
  • Long a skeptic of what he once called “the forever wars” in Afghanistan and the Middle East, Biden withdrew all remaining U.S. troops from Afghanistan in August 2021 as part of an earlier deal struck by Trump.
  • Biden has announced his intention to shut down the detention center at Guantánamo Bay, Cuba, by the end of his term, though his efforts have been impeded by acts of Congress that prohibit federal funds from being used to transfer detainees to the United States.

He has authorized use of the Defense Production Act, which allows the U.S. government to intervene in strategic industries, to “rebuild and expand” the United States’ defense industrial base. Impacted sectors include those related to hypersonic weaponry, critical tech and energy supply chains, and circuit boards used in missile and radar systems.

Biden emphasizes that the United States cannot deal with the new challenges it faces without close relationships with its allies and the cooperation of international institutions. He says Trump’s withdrawal from treaties and his denigration of alliances has “bankrupted America’s word in the world.”

  • He wants to convene all democratic nations in a “Summit for Democracy” to discuss three major areas: fighting corruption, defending against rising authoritarianism, and advancing human rights.
  • He says he will make diplomacy the premier tool of U.S. foreign policy and will “rebuild” the State Department.
  • He argues that Trump has “belittled, undermined, and in some cases abandoned U.S. allies and partners.”
  • He promises to recommit to alliances and reenter agreements, including restoring U.S. support for NATO, rejoining the Iran nuclear deal and the Paris climate accord, and strengthening alliances with Australia, Israel, Japan, and South Korea.
  • He warns about the rising tide of populism and nationalism around the world, and argues that if the United States withdraws from global leadership, “authoritarian powers will rush in.” He says Trump’s “admiration for autocrats” is dangerous. 
  • He told CFR that the United States’ greatest foreign policy accomplishment has been the “investments in collective security and prosperity” made in partnership with U.S. allies.

Biden has positioned himself as a champion of the middle class, warning that decreasing economic opportunity and mobility is worsening the polarization and radicalization of American life. He proposes trillions of dollars in new federal spending on U.S. products, infrastructure, and research, arguing that “economic security is national security.”

  • He argues that the “basic bargain” with workers has broken down, and that economic globalization has had major downsides. He says globalization has “hollowed out” the middle class, led to the loss of millions of U.S. manufacturing jobs, and accelerated inequality. 
  • He says the 2017 tax reform has made these problems worse by cutting taxes for the wealthiest individuals. He wants to repeal the 2017 law, instead raising corporate taxes and taxes on investments and other passive income. He would also increase middle-class benefits such as the child tax credit. 
  • That additional tax revenue, he says, would help fund his $700 billion “Buy American” economic plan, outlined in July 2020. Under this plan, the federal government would spend $400 billion on U.S. goods and services over four years and devote another $300 billion to research and development of clean energy and other technologies. 
  • He has described Trump’s manufacturing strategy as “trickle-down economics that works for corporate executives and Wall Street investors, but not working families.”
  • He also wants to invest trillions of dollars into American infrastructure. He proposes putting at least $1.7 trillion—which he says would be generated by reversing the 2017 tax cuts—toward clean energy and other infrastructure. 
  • He has consistently proposed major reforms to U.S. education, pushing for free community college and vocational training, as well as free public four-year college. He says this is essential for U.S. workers to compete internationally and adapt in an economy under pressure from automation and other technological disruptions.
  • He proposes policies to strengthen worker leverage in the marketplace: banning noncompete rules, ending wage secrecy, and implementing a national $15 per hour minimum wage.  
  • He wants to do more to challenge monopolies, arguing that the Trump administration has been weak on antitrust. He has said he is open to the federal government breaking up dominant firms like Facebook.

The Biden administration says its “Bidenomics” economic policy has three pillars: making massive public investments in energy and infrastructure, growing the middle class, and challenging monopolistic consolidation. Biden has pledged to raise taxes on corporations and the wealthiest Americans in a bid to reduce record deficits. 

  • Biden has signed legislation authorizing trillions of dollars in new public spending. In 2021, the bipartisan Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act, the largest infrastructure spending bill in decades, authorized $1.2 trillion in spending toward U.S. roads, railways, airports, and other infrastructure. Additional subsidies for semiconductor and climate investments have reached more than $800 billion.
  • Nonpartisan watchdogs expect that Biden’s spending programs will increase the growing federal deficit by more than $1 trillion over the next decade. The deficit is now $1.7 trillion, and the national debt has climbed past $30 trillion, or more than 100 percent of U.S. economic output.
  • Biden says raising taxes on the richest Americans would “wipe out” the debt. He opposes extending tax cuts that the 2017 Tax Cuts and Jobs Act granted to Americans with yearly household incomes over $400,000. He has also proposed raising the corporate tax rate from 21 to 28 percent and implementing a wealth tax that would impose a 25 percent levy on individuals with more than $100 million worth of total assets.
  • In 2021, Biden brokered a global agreement to tax corporations at a minimum of 15 percent, though it is yet to be implemented. One year later, he introduced a 15 percent corporate minimum tax on U.S. companies with annual income over $1 billion.
  • Biden has made antitrust policy a priority, challenging alleged monopolies in the aviation, energy, and technology sectors. In 2022, Biden appointees leading the Federal Trade Commission and Department of Justice recorded the most challenges to proposed mergers since the United States began requiring premerger reviews in 1976.

When Biden took office, the death toll from COVID-19 had surpassed four hundred thousand people. As president, he has expanded access to testing and treatment for COVID-19, launched a nationwide vaccination campaign against the disease, and signed a $1.9 trillion pandemic relief package. His administration also rejoined the World Health Organization, which Trump had threatened to withdraw the United States from, and it revoked a controversial policy that blocked U.S. foreign aid from funding any organizations that promote or perform abortions.

  • Biden criticized China for a lack of transparency during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic and accused Beijing of withholding “critical information” on the novel coronavirus’s origins. In March 2023, he ordered the release of U.S. intelligence materials on the potential link between the virus’s initial outbreak and a laboratory in the Chinese city of Wuhan. The following month, he ended the U.S. national emergency in response to the pandemic, three years after it was declared.
  • His national pandemic strategy [PDF] focused on quickly ramping up vaccine production, protecting essential workers, and expanding access to testing and treatment. In March 2021, Biden signed into law a $1.9 trillion pandemic relief bill, which provided direct payments of up to $1,400 per person, a $300 federal boost to weekly jobless benefits, and $350 billion to local governments, states, and territories and tribes, among other measures.
  • His administration pursued an aggressive COVID-19 vaccination policy that included free vaccine access and a nationwide vaccine mandate that would have affected most large employers. (The Supreme Court struck down the mandate.) His administration also directed billions of dollars to GAVI, the Vaccine Alliance, a public-private partnership that has provided billions of doses to lower-income countries.
  • In October 2022, he unveiled a new national biodefense strategy [PDF] that aims to help the United States better prepare for large-scale biological or viral threats that could emerge in the future. The strategy led to the creation of the White House’s Office of Pandemic Preparedness and Response Policy, tasked with coordinating, leading, and implementing pandemic preparedness efforts.
  • Like Trump, Biden invoked the Defense Production Act to help manage the pandemic. His administration used the law to direct the private sector to increase critical medical supplies, expand access to testing, and spur vaccine production.
  • He issued an executive order retracting Trump’s decision to withdraw from the World Health Organization, to which the United States is one of the largest donors.
  • Biden has sought to address the U.S. opioid epidemic, including by declaring synthetic opioid trafficking a national emergency; sanctioning firms and individuals in China, a critical node in the drug’s supply chain; and pushing China and Mexico to do more to cut the flow of fentanyl into the United States.
  • Biden rescinded the so-called Mexico City policy blocking abortion-related programs from receiving U.S. foreign aid, saying that it undermined U.S. efforts to support women’s health. He also restored funding to the UN Population Fund that Trump had revoked over the fund’s alleged support for forced abortions in China.

Biden has condemned Trump’s approach to immigrants and asylum seekers, calling it “morally bankrupt” and “racist.” He supports comprehensive immigration reform, and has in the past backed more restrictionist policies. He emphasizes the need to address the root causes of immigration in the countries of origin.

  • Biden highlights his role on immigration in the Obama administration, where he led policy on addressing the 2014 wave of unaccompanied minors arriving at the U.S. southern border. He says the $750 million aid package the administration gave to Central American governments helped stem the flow of migrants.
  • He continues to back the broad outlines of Obama’s unsuccessful 2013 comprehensive reform plan, including a path to citizenship for undocumented residents paired with stronger border enforcement. He says border policy should focus on beefing up screening at legal points of entry, not building a wall.
  • He would overturn policies that separate families at the border and prolong detentions. He also vows to establish public-private networks to address humanitarian needs at the border.
  • He opposes Trump’s executive order barring travelers from several majority-Muslim countries, which the Trump administration says is necessary to limit entry of would-be terrorists into the country.
  • He says Dreamers—undocumented residents brought to the United States as children—should be immediately granted citizenship. 
  • He criticizes Trump on punishing so-called sanctuary cities that refuse to cooperate with federal immigration enforcement. He condemns family separation and overcrowded detention facilities and wants to “strengthen and streamline” the U.S. asylum system. 
  • He also wants to reverse Trump on temporary protected status (TPS)—restoring the immigration program for citizens of El Salvador, Haiti, Nicaragua, Sudan, and elsewhere and extending it to Venezuelans. 
  • He has rebutted criticism from other candidates who have attacked Obama’s deportation policy—three million people were deported during his tenure—saying it is “immoral” to compare Obama and Trump.
  • As a senator, he voted for the 2006 Secure Fence Act, which authorized seven hundred miles of fencing on the U.S.-Mexico border, and a 1996 law that increased penalties for illegal immigration and expanded the government’s deportation authority. In 2008, he proposed jailing employers that hire undocumented workers, cracking down on sanctuary cities, and building more border fencing to stop drug dealers from Mexico. 

Biden campaigned on overturning nearly all of Trump’s restrictive immigration policies. He supports comprehensive immigration reform; to this end, he has worked to expand some asylum and refugee protections, increase the capacity of some guest worker visa programs, and address the root causes of migration from Central America. However, he has also restricted asylum access more broadly amid a historic surge of migration at the U.S.-Mexico border.

  • On his first day in office, Biden sent to Congress his own proposal for wide-ranging immigration reform. Among other provisions, the U.S. Citizenship Act of 2021 sought to establish an eight-year path to citizenship for undocumented immigrants, reduce visa backlogs, and create new systems for asylum seekers and other migrants to legally apply for protection from outside the United States. The bill did not advance in Congress.
  • He suspended construction of the wall at the southern U.S. border and rescinded the national emergency declaration that allowed Trump to divert funds to build out the barrier. But Biden has also faced criticism for his administration’s use of border patrol facilities to house migrants. 
  • With migration reaching record levels, Biden has faced pushback from several Republican-led border states. Most notably, the administration sued Texas to stop a state law that the White House says improperly overrides federal immigration policy by allowing local law enforcement to arrest migrants who cross the border illegally.
  • Under Biden, the overall number of deportations carried out by U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) surpassed 142,000 in fiscal year 2023, compared to just over 59,000 in fiscal year 2021. Detentions have also risen to more than 273,000, up from slightly over 211,400 in fiscal year 2021.
  • Biden has pledged to rebuild the U.S. refugee resettlement program after Trump made large cuts. Biden raised the annual admissions cap to 125,000 for fiscal years 2022, 2023, and 2024, up from a record low of eighteen thousand in 2020. However, actual refugee admissions only reached roughly sixty thousand in fiscal year 2023. The administration also created new parole programs that allow additional Afghan and Ukrainian refugees to come to the United States.
  • Biden ended Trump’s 2019 “Remain in Mexico” program that required most asylum seekers to wait in Mexico while their cases were processed in U.S. immigration courts. Court decisions also forced Biden to continue implementing Title 42, which allowed border officials to expel migrants on public health grounds, until 2023.
  • He has sought to restore asylum access, including by ending daily limits on asylum applications and restoring protections to victims of domestic and gang violence. 
  • However, his administration unveiled a new policy in 2023 that allows the government to deny asylum to migrants who did not previously apply for it in a third country and to those who cross the border illegally. This approach includes new screening centers in several Latin American countries. 
  • In 2024, his administration also issued an order temporarily blocking people who illegally cross the border from seeking asylum once the number of daily crossings exceeds a certain threshold. A separate order also expanded green card access for certain undocumented immigrants who are married to U.S. citizens.
  • He expanded and renewed temporary protected status (TPS) for hundreds of thousands of eligible nationals of several countries, including Afghanistan, Cameroon, and Ukraine. He has also deferred the removal of most Palestinian migrants from the country for eighteen months amid Israel’s war in the Gaza Strip. 
  • He expanded the capacity of some guest worker visa programs in response to the increasing demand for temporary workers. In October 2023, his administration released a proposal to modernize the H1B visa program for workers with specialized knowledge, including by tightening some eligibility criteria.
  • He has appealed a federal ruling declaring unlawful the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) policy, an Obama-era program that provides deportation relief and work permits to undocumented migrants brought to the United States illegally as children. 
  • He reinstated the Central American Minors program, which has allowed thousands of children from the so-called Northern Triangle countries of El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras to gain refugee status or temporary legal residence before traveling to the southern U.S. border. (Trump discontinued the program in 2017.) In 2021, the Biden administration launched a four-year, $4 billion initiative to address the drivers of Central American migration.

Both as a senator and as vice president, Biden has been deeply engaged in shaping U.S. diplomacy and military policy across the Middle East. As a candidate, he is running on his experience dealing with Iraq, Israel, Syria, Iran, and others in the region.

  • Biden has been a strong supporter of Israel throughout his political career, calling himself a Zionist. He says his commitment to Israel’s security is “ironclad” and that, while he promises to place “constant pressure” on Israel to resolve its conflicts, he would not withhold aid.
  • He told CFR he backs a two-state solution to the Israel-Palestinian conflict, which he says Trump’s unilateral approach has made more difficult. He supports keeping the U.S. embassy in Jerusalem after Trump moved it there in 2018.
  • He also says Israel must stop settlement activity in the occupied territories and provide more aid to Gaza, and that Palestinian leaders should stop the “glorification of violence.” He calls on Arab states to normalize relations with Israel. He says he does not support Israeli government plans to annex the West Bank, arguing such a move would “choke off any hope for peace.”
  • He criticizes the Boycott, Divestment, and Sanctions (BDS) movement, which seeks to put economic pressure on Israel, and says it “veers into anti-Semitism,” and that he would oppose any BDS efforts in Congress.
  • He calls Iran a “destabilizing” force in the region and told CFR it must never be allowed to develop nuclear weapons.
  • He calls Trump’s approach to Iran a “self-inflicted disaster”, arguing that his withdrawal from the 2015 Iran nuclear deal has failed to keep Tehran from advancing its nuclear program. Biden pledges to rejoin the agreement if Iran returns to compliance.
  • He says that Iranian commander Qasem Soleimani, who was killed by a U.S. air strike in January 2020, deserved justice for his role in attacks on U.S. troops, but that Trump’s decision to target him was an “enormous escalation” made without any plan for the likely consequences. He says Trump has no authority to undertake war with Iran without congressional approval.
  • He condemns Trump’s withdrawal of U.S. troops from northern Syria, which he calls a betrayal of the Kurds and “the most shameful thing any president has done in modern history in terms of foreign policy.” He says Turkey “must pay a heavy price” for its military campaign in Syrian Kurdish territory. 
  • He says he is “very concerned” about the United States keeping nuclear weapons in Turkey, and proposes stronger support for the domestic opposition to President Recep Tayyip Erdogan. As vice president, Biden publicly apologized to Erdogan for suggesting Turkey supported the Islamic State.
  • As vice president, he was skeptical of committing U.S. troops to Syria, arguing that any significant use of force would have had unpredictable consequences. In 2018, he called Syria one of the United States’ “biggest conundrums.” 
  • He has long been deeply involved in Iraq policy. As a senator, he supported President George W. Bush’s 2003 invasion of Iraq, but opposed the 2007 surge of additional troops. Instead, Biden proposed partitioning Iraq into three self-governing regions. As vice president, he oversaw the 2011 withdrawal of the remaining 150,000 U.S. troops and then the return of U.S. forces to fight the Islamic State in 2014.
  • He told CFR he wants a “reassessment” of U.S. support for Saudi Arabia in the wake of the murder of journalist Jamal Khashoggi, the Saudi-led war in Yemen, and domestic human rights violations.
  • Though the Obama administration backed the Saudi war in Yemen, Biden says Washington should end its involvement in the “unwinnable conflict.” He also says he would stop arms sales to the kingdom and treat Riyadh like a “pariah” on the world stage.
  • He has long been critical of Saudi Arabia. In 2014, he blamed the country and its Sunni allies for allowing resources to flow to the Islamic State. 

Throughout his presidency, Biden has been deeply engaged in shaping U.S. policy towards the Middle East. He began his term seeking to rejoin the Iran nuclear deal and normalize relations between Israel and Saudi Arabia, but renewed conflict between Israel and Palestinian militant group Hamas has since preoccupied his administration’s efforts in the region.

  • Biden has been a strong supporter of Israel throughout his political career, calling himself a “Zionist.” Following Hamas’s attack on southern Israel in October 2023, Biden has backed Israel’s right to defend itself and pressed for an additional $15 billion in military aid to the country. He has called his support for Israel “rock solid and unwavering.” 
  • However, he has also sought to restrain Israel’s military response amid its war against Hamas, calling Israel’s actions “over the top” due to mounting civilian casualties in the Gaza Strip. His administration has repeatedly sought to negotiate cease-fire deals, most recently in June 2024, and hostage exchanges between Israel and Hamas. 
  • Biden says a two-state solution is the only way to permanently end the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. He has previously called on Arab states to normalize relations with Israel, though his efforts on this front have stalled amid the Israel-Hamas war.
  • Biden calls Israel’s settlement activity in the occupied Palestinian territories “inconsistent with international law.” In February 2024, he signed an executive order that paved the way for the U.S. government to impose its first sanctions against Israeli individuals involved in attacks on Palestinians; the day Biden signed the order, the U.S. Treasury Department sanctioned four Israeli settlers accused of violence in the West Bank.
  • Biden began his term seeking a normalization deal between Israel and Saudi Arabia. In exchange, Riyadh had asked for formalized U.S. security guarantees, cooperation on a civilian nuclear program, and Israeli concessions toward Palestinians, but negotiations came to a standstill after the October 7 Hamas attack.
  • As a candidate in 2020, Biden had pledged to treat Saudi Arabia as a “pariah” for its human rights violations, including its role in the war in Yemen. However, the Biden administration continues to describe Saudi Arabia as a “strong partner,” and Washington remains Riyadh’s largest supplier of arms. 
  • In partnership with the United Kingdom, he ordered a military campaign against the Iran-backed, Yemen-based Houthi rebel group, which says it is targeting commercial vessels in the Red Sea to support Hamas in its war with Israel. The Biden administration says the strikes will go on “as long as they need to.” 
  • Biden has criticized Trump’s withdrawal from the Iran nuclear deal and pursued talks with Tehran about resuming the agreement. But progress has been hindered and potentially halted over Iran’s support of Hamas, the Houthis, and other groups antagonistic to the United States. After Iran-aligned forces killed three U.S. service members in Jordan in January 2024, U.S. military forces struck more than eighty-five Iran-linked targets in Iraq and Syria.

Biden supports diplomacy with Pyongyang, but says that Trump’s talks with Kim Jong-un have been unsuccessful and potentially counterproductive, serving only to “legitimize a dictator.”

  • Biden supports continued negotiations, but says they would depend on Kim taking concrete steps toward dismantling his nuclear program, with a final goal of a fully denuclearized North Korea. He says he would not continue direct personal diplomacy with Kim.
  • He told CFR he would launch a “sustained, coordinated campaign” with U.S. allies and with China to advance negotiations. He says Trump has “ostracized” the United States from its Asian allies, especially South Korea, and that he would seek to deepen Washington’s relationship with Seoul.
  • He has called Trump’s repeated meetings with Kim “photo-ops,” and he argues that they have worsened the situation by bolstering Kim’s regime without securing any concessions.
  • “We still don’t have a single commitment from North Korea...not one missile or nuclear weapon has been destroyed, not one inspector is on the ground,” Biden has said.

Biden warns that Russia under President Vladimir Putin is “assaulting the foundations of Western democracy” by seeking to weaken NATO, divide the European Union, and undermine the U.S. electoral system. He also warns of Russia using Western financial institutions to launder billions of dollars, money he says is then used to influence politicians.

  • Biden is a longtime champion of NATO, and has encouraged its expansion eastward, most recently with the accession of Montenegro. In 2009, he supported the so far unsuccessful ambitions of Georgia and Ukraine to join the alliance.
  • He calls for an independent investigation into “Russia’s assault on American democracy,” along the lines of the 9/11 Commission, to examine how to deter Moscow’s ongoing efforts at disruption. 
  • He says that the United States and its European allies must strengthen their cyber infrastructure, close foreign-money loopholes, increase the transparency of online platforms, and better coordinate intelligence and law enforcement efforts.
  • They must also invest more in NATO, which he says should forward deploy more troops to Eastern Europe to deter Russian aggression.
  • He argues that the United States and Europe must “impose meaningful costs” on Moscow. Biden touts the sanctions the Obama administration levied against Russia after its 2014 invasion of Ukraine and says they should be continued and expanded as necessary.
  • He told CFR that he would increase U.S. military assistance to Ukraine, conditioned on anticorruption reforms, to ensure “Russia pays a heavier price” for its interference. As vice president, he advocated for sending weapons to Ukraine to support it against the Russia-backed insurgency in its eastern territories, and he supported Trump’s moves to do so as well.
  • He sharply criticized Trump for failing to respond to intelligence reports that reportedly indicated Moscow was offering bounties to Taliban-linked militias to kill U.S. and coalition soldiers in Afghanistan, calling it a “dereliction of duty.” 
  • He opposes Trump’s advocacy for readmitting Russia to the Group of Seven, from which it was expelled after its 2014 annexation of Crimea.
  • Biden has faced criticism from Trump for his family’s ties to Ukraine, specifically the affiliation of his son, Hunter, with a Ukrainian energy company while Biden was serving as vice president. Biden says Hunter’s position had no connection to U.S.-Ukraine policy. Trump’s alleged efforts to use military aid to pressure Ukraine to investigate Biden were at the center of Trump’s 2019 impeachment.
  • Despite his distrust of Russian policy objectives, Biden says Washington should pursue new arms control arrangements with Moscow, beginning with the extension of the New START treaty to reduce nuclear stockpiles.

Biden says that the United States will back Ukraine’s defensive efforts against Russia for “as long as it takes” to counter the threat that a Russian victory would pose to the rest of Europe. Since Russia launched its full-scale invasion of Ukraine in 2022, Biden’s administration has directed tens of billions of dollars in financial assistance to Ukraine, imposed sanctions on Russian entities and individuals, and enlarged the U.S. military presence in Europe.

  • Biden has strongly condemned Russia’s invasion, calling it “an unprovoked and unjustified attack” and pledging to support Kyiv indefinitely. Since 2022, the United States has provided Ukraine with about $75 billion in assistance, including financial, humanitarian, and military support. In April 2024, Biden signed into law a bill that provides an additional $61 billion in new aid to Ukraine.
  • His administration has worked closely with Western allies to impose sweeping sanctions, export controls, and other penalties on Russian entities and individuals, including the Russian private military company Wagner Group. The measures have focused on isolating Russia from the global financial system, limiting its energy exports, and hampering its military capabilities.
  • Biden says the United States will boost its long-term military presence in Europe in response to the threat posed by Russia, including by building a new permanent U.S. Army headquarters in Poland. However, he has ruled out sending U.S. troops directly to Ukraine, which he says would risk a significant escalation of the conflict.
  • Prior to the outbreak of war, Biden pursued several diplomatic avenues with Russia. He and Russian President Putin agreed to extend the New START treaty, which limits the U.S. and Russian arsenals of long-range nuclear weapons. The two leaders have met once during Biden’s presidency, in 2021, with little direct contact since. 
  • Biden has faced criticism from Trump and other lawmakers for his son Hunter’s past affiliation with a Ukrainian energy company while Biden was vice president. Biden has said Hunter’s position had no connection to U.S.-Ukraine policy. Trump’s 2019 impeachment centered on his alleged efforts to use military aid to pressure Ukraine to investigate Biden.

Biden has been a longtime supporter of trade liberalization and a critic of Trump’s tariffs, arguing that Washington should take the lead on creating global trade rules and lowering barriers to commerce worldwide. However, he is also critical of some aspects of trade. 

  • He told CFR that the United States must “write the rules of the road for the world” to create a level playing field for workers and to protect the environment. He says he wouldn’t sign any new trade deal that doesn’t include “major investments” in jobs and infrastructure, or that doesn’t include labor and environmental advocates in negotiations. 
  • As vice president, he backed the Obama administration’s Asia-Pacific trade deal, the Trans-Pacific Partnership, which Trump rejected. He says backing out of the TPP “put China in the driver’s seat.”
  • Singling out China, he argues for “aggressive” retaliation against countries that break international trade rules by subsidizing their companies and stealing U.S. intellectual property. He also says existing trade laws must be better enforced, and argues that the United States must use its economic leverage to negotiate better deals.
  • He opposes Trump’s trade war with China, calling the tariffs “self-defeating” because Americans are bearing their cost.
  • As a senator in 1993, he voted for the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), a vote he continues to defend. He supports Trump’s renegotiated version, the U.S.-Mexico-Canada Agreement, because of its improved labor rights provisions.
  • He has opposed some other U.S. trade deals, like the one signed with Peru in 2006, citing weak labor and environmental protections. He supported normalizing trade relations with China in 2000. 
  • He told CFR that Washington should help African countries develop by strengthening trade relationships and opening new markets for U.S. businesses.

After championing free trade for decades as a U.S. senator and vice president, Biden has used his presidency to bring back industrial policy, applying new guardrails on trade that he says promote U.S. manufacturing, counter China’s economic rise, and address worsening climate change. 

  • He has not rejoined the Trans-Pacific Partnership, a free trade agreement from which Trump withdrew. Biden has instead sought to negotiate a successor deal that includes cooperation on supply chains but does not eliminate tariffs or increase access to the U.S. market.
  • Biden has sought to develop what he calls “foreign policy for the middle class.” He says that previous trade deals focused too much on boosting corporate profits while exposing U.S. workers to unfair competition. He says strengthening investment in U.S. manufacturing and infrastructure is a more effective way of increasing the country’s economic competitiveness.
  • He has mobilized the federal government to support strategic domestic industries, an effort known as industrial policy. In 2022, he signed the CHIPS and Science Act directing hundreds of billions of dollars toward U.S. semiconductor manufacturing.
  • That same year, he signed the Inflation Reduction Act, which contained an additional $369 billion in federal grants, loans, and tax incentives to “help build a clean energy economy.” To obtain access to CHIPS and IRA funding, companies must agree to limit operations in China, Iran, North Korea, and Russia. 
  • Biden has maintained some $360 billion in tariffs on China that were implemented by Trump while also introducing several of his own. He has also imposed a slew of new restrictions aimed at curtailing Beijing’s access to advanced technologies, and he has pushed U.S. allies, including major semiconductor suppliers Japan and the Netherlands, to implement similar restrictions.
  • Biden signed an executive order strengthening so-called Buy American laws, which require the federal government to secure goods and services from U.S. firms. He also signed an executive order to replace all government vehicles with U.S.-made electric vehicles by 2035.

Biden says that Trump has “taken a wrecking ball to our hemispheric ties,” pointing to his immigration policies and also to what Biden sees as a haphazard approach to the regional crisis in Venezuela, which has created more than three million refugees.

  • Biden told CFR that Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro is a “tyrant” who should step aside, and has called on world governments to recognize opposition leader Juan Guaido. 
  • He advocates for increased sanctions on the regime and its supporters, more aid to help both Venezuela and its neighbors deal with the refugee crisis, and negotiations over the release of political prisoners and new elections.
  • He criticizes Trump’s handling of the Venezuela crisis, charging that his administration’s efforts to support democracy there “have been undermined by politicization, faulty execution and clunky sloganeering.” 
  • He says that Trump’s “saber rattling” over potential U.S. military intervention in Venezuela has threatened the coalition that has been assembled to support Guaido, and he condemns the administration’s refusal to allow more Venezuelans refuge in the United States.
  • He points to his focus on Latin America as vice president. During his tenure, the Obama administration reopened diplomatic ties with Cuba, which the Trump administration then reversed, blaming Cuba for propping up Maduro’s regime in Venezuela. Obama also concluded trade deals with Colombia and Panama and negotiated a $750 million aid package for Central America.

The rapid ascent of artificial intelligence (AI) has led analysts to predict the beginning of a new era in geopolitics. Meanwhile, TikTok and other foreign technology companies continue to cause concern among policymakers who fear they constitute a threat to national security.

The increasingly confrontational U.S.-China relationship has aroused international concern and become a central issue in the 2020 race, heightened by the pandemic of the new coronavirus disease, COVID-19, that originated there. Washington has long sought to manage China’s rise by integrating the country—now one of the world’s two largest economies—into global institutions such as the World Trade Organization (WTO) in the hope that China would fully accept the prevailing international order. But U.S. policymakers have struggled to respond to Beijing’s growing assertiveness. Read more

Strategic competition with China—now one of the world’s two largest economies, alongside the United States—will be one of the most consequential foreign policy challenges confronting the next presidential administration. It will face an increasingly contentious relationship with Beijing on both trade and security issues.

Recent years have seen stark warnings from the scientific community that climate change and its effects are approaching faster than previously understood. The UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has concluded that nations must move more swiftly to slash emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, and other greenhouse gasses to avoid the most devastating effects of global warming. Read more

In recent years, extreme weather events have caused increased damage around the world. As global temperatures continue to rise at an alarming rate, the probability of more-intense drought, excessive rainfall, severe storms, and bigger wildfires, is growing. Experts warn that shifting climate patterns will facilitate the spread of disease and contribute to food and water shortages.

The emergence of the novel coronavirus disease known as COVID-19 in early 2020 has led to sweeping social and economic changes around the world as governments grapple with how to contain the pandemic. It also appears to have fundamentally transformed the 2020 presidential race. Read more

 

The counterterrorism debate has shifted markedly in recent years in response to a spate of high-profile shootings in the United States and other Western countries, many of which were perpetrated by white supremacists. Protecting Americans from homegrown hate groups has become a priority for many policymakers, while counterterrorism operations abroad have taken on new forms nearly two decades after the attacks of September 11, 2001. Read more

 

Russia’s interference in the 2016 presidential election revealed in stark terms the vulnerability of American democracy to foreign adversaries. Yet many experts warn that Washington has not done enough in the time since to safeguard the country’s electoral systems or stem the spread of disinformation on social media platforms. Read more

The role of the U.S. military is a perennial topic of debate, with some politicians questioning its steadily increasing costs and its extensive overseas commitments. Today, U.S. forces are fighting enemies in many countries: notably Afghanistan and Syria, but also in places such as Niger and Pakistan. Meanwhile, the Pentagon maintains bases around the globe, from Djibouti to Japan. Read more

American defense strategy has shifted focus to great-power competition with China and Russia after nearly two decades dominated by troop deployments in Afghanistan and Iraq. With U.S. military personnel stationed in 178 countries, the role of the military—and of U.S. alliances—has grown increasingly controversial.

Since the end of World War II, the United States has led global diplomatic efforts to build alliances and institutions to promote peace and prosperity. Washington has been among the chief architects of the United Nations, the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the World Trade Organization (WTO), and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), as well as many other international institutions. Read more

The United States’ ability to influence events abroad depends on the health of its economy, and many 2020 challengers argue that it is on shaky ground. Despite low unemployment and a record period of economic expansion in the wake of the 2008 financial crisis, economists worry about slowing growth, rising debt, and uncertainty over President Donald J. Trump’s trade war. Read more

The health of the U.S. economy is a major factor in the United States’ ability to influence events abroad. It continues to outpace its peers, but many economists point to signs of trouble: debt levels are soaring, inflation remains high, and U.S. firms lag in manufacturing certain advanced technologies.

The COVID-19 pandemic led to sweeping economic and social changes around the world and raised concerns about global preparedness for future large-scale biological or viral threats. The political divides that the pandemic response engendered could now threaten the future of U.S. programs on global health that once operated with strong bipartisan support.

Immigration has been a flashpoint of the U.S. political debate for decades. Efforts at comprehensive immigration reform have repeatedly foundered in Congress due to disagreement over creating a path to citizenship for the estimated eleven million undocumented residents in the United States, many of whom are from Mexico and Central America. Read more

The contentious immigration debate has taken center stage in national politics as migration to the U.S.-Mexico border continues to surge, straining local and federal resources. Border security and asylum policy have grown increasingly divisive, and efforts toward comprehensive immigration reform have repeatedly foundered in Congress.

The Middle East continues to consume the world’s attention and poses special challenges to the United States. Devastating civil wars grind on in Syria and Yemen, driven in part by outside powers, creating humanitarian catastrophes and defying efforts at political solutions. Iran is poised to resume nuclear activities while pursuing expanded influence in Iraq, Syria, and Yemen. There are dwindling prospects for a lasting settlement between Israel and the Palestinians. Read more

 

The Middle East continues to command global attention and pose challenges to the United States as attacks by the Houthi rebel group threaten supply chains and debate continues over how to respond to destabilizing behavior by Iran. Meanwhile, as the war between Israel and Hamas drags on—and as its death toll mounts—the prospect of long-standing peace in the region appears increasingly remote.

North Korea has become one of the United States’ thorniest foreign policy challenges as the Kim Jong-un regime has defied international sanctions to escalate its pursuit of nuclear weapons and missile technology in recent years. Many fear the country is closing in on military capabilities that could allow it to hold East Asia hostage and even strike the continental United States. Read more

In the wake of Western efforts to develop a cooperative post–Cold War relationship with Russia, the country has reemerged as a top U.S. rival and an object of mistrust and suspicion. To its critics in Washington, including Democratic nominee Joe Biden, Moscow’s foreign policy has become dangerously aggressive in recent years, from military intervention in Ukraine and Syria to interference in Western elections to violation of nuclear treaties. Read more

Russia’s full-scale invasion of Ukraine, the most destructive war in Europe since World War II, has dramatically heightened tensions between Russia and Western countries, which have imposed a bevy of sanctions on Moscow. The United States and its allies have armed and funded the Ukrainian government, sparking debate in Washington. 

 

Trade has taken center stage during the administration of President Donald J. Trump, who has set out to renegotiate long-standing deals and challenge a system that he says has been unfair to American workers. While the United States has long led the charge for global trade liberalization—in the belief that open, rules-based markets increase prosperity and expand Washington’s influence—rising inequality has led to growing skepticism about this model within both major parties. Read more

For decades, the United States led the charge for global trade liberalization, driven by the belief that open, rules-based markets boost prosperity and expand Washington’s influence. In recent years, rising income inequality, an increasingly assertive China, and the decline of the U.S. industrial base have led to growing skepticism about this model within both major parties.

 

Venezuela is in the midst of a historic economic and humanitarian crisis that is rippling across the hemisphere. Despite the country’s oil wealth, decades of corruption and mismanagement have left much of the populace struggling to buy food and medicine. Nearly four million Venezuelans, or 10 percent of the population, have fled, threatening to overwhelm the country’s neighbors. Read more

 

Biden has framed supporting the U.S. technology sector as a matter of national security, even as he has sought to confront large tech companies for what he sees as unfair market practices. He has overseen the first, modest efforts in creating a federal approach to the governance of artificial intelligence (AI) and taken steps to slow China’s high-tech development.

  • Biden signed the CHIPS and Science Act in August 2022, directing more than $280 billion in federal funding toward domestic production of advanced technologies and the hardware that underpins their development, such as semiconductors.
  • The same year, the Biden administration published an “AI Bill of Rights” identifying five principles for the responsible deployment of the technology. And in 2023, fifteen leading AI firms agreed to voluntary AI safety commitments, including a pledge to submit their cutting-edge models for government review.
  • In October 2023, he signed an executive order requiring federal agencies to follow a unified framework for the safe use of AI. 
  • Biden has also joined several international efforts to govern AI, including the Hiroshima Process led by the Group of Seven (G7) and a joint declaration that seeks to ensure the technology is “human-centric, trustworthy, and responsible.” China has also signed the latter statement.
  • Biden has imposed several restrictions on Chinese AI development. These include export controls that restrict China’s access to semiconductors and bans on some U.S. investment in Chinese AI companies.
  • In February 2024, Biden signed an executive order aimed at preventing China, Russia, and other “countries of concern” from accessing Americans’ personal data. The measure follows a mandate requiring U.S. cloud service firms to reveal when Chinese companies use their data centers.
  • He unveiled a new National Cybersecurity Strategy in 2023 that urges U.S. companies to take responsibility for ensuring that their systems cannot be hacked and suggests that they could be held legally liable for not protecting “digital infrastructure.” The strategy also called for expanding U.S. military authorization to preempt foreign cyberattacks.  
  • Biden has asked Congress to create legislation strengthening antitrust enforcement that can be used against large technology firms. During his presidency, the Department of Justice has pursued antitrust cases against Apple, Amazon, Google, and other big tech firms.
  • The Biden administration has been challenged in court over its role in asking social media companies to remove content that it considers false and misleading. Critics call these efforts a violation of the First Amendment, and the issue has gone to the Supreme Court to be settled.
  • The Biden administration has cracked down on cryptocurrencies due to concerns over their utility in evading sanctions, laundering money, and financing terrorism. He has directed the Federal Reserve to explore developing a central bank digital currency (CBDC).

Biden has framed China’s rise as a serious challenge. He has criticized its “abusive” trade practices—warning that it may pull ahead of the United States in new technologies—and its human rights record. He says he would mount a more effective pushback against China than Trump and work more closely with allies to pressure Beijing.

  • Biden agrees with Trump that China is breaking international trade rules, unfairly subsidizing Chinese companies, and discriminating against U.S. firms and stealing their intellectual property. He says one million manufacturing jobs have been lost to China.
  • However, he says Trump’s broad tariffs are “erratic” and “self-defeating,” and he instead calls for targeted retaliation against China using existing trade laws and building a united front of allies. He warns that China is making massive investments in energy, infrastructure, and technology that threaten to leave the United States behind.
  • He criticized Trump’s January 2020 “phase one” trade deal with China, calling Beijing “the big winner” and arguing that increased purchases of U.S. agricultural products won’t address China’s “illegal and unfair” economic practices.
  • He has also criticized Trump for accepting China’s assurances about the coronavirus pandemic, and says the Trump administration’s travel ban failed to halt visitors from China. He says he would insist on greater transparency from the Chinese government.
  • He attacked Trump for what he called a weak response to China’s infringement of Hong Kong’s autonomy and democratic processes under Beijing’s new national security law, and he stated that he would step up sanctions on those responsible.
  • He pledges to reinvigorate the United States as a Pacific power by increasing the U.S. naval presence in the Asia-Pacific and deepening ties with countries including Australia, Indonesia, Japan, and South Korea to make it clear to Beijing that Washington “won’t back down.”
  • He told CFR that “the free world” must unite in the face of China’s “high-tech authoritarianism” and that Washington must shape the “rules, norms, and institutions” that will govern the global use of new technologies, such as artificial intelligence. 
  • He has said that China’s corruption and internal divisions mean “they’re not competition for us.” He says deeper U.S.-China cooperation is possible on climate, nuclear weapons, and other issues. He also believes that remaining competitive with China hinges on U.S. innovation and uniting “the economic might of democracies around the world.
  • He believes his vice-presidential experience gives him unique insight into dealing with China’s leadership, saying he has spent more time with Xi Jinping than any other world leader.
  • As a senator, Biden supported China’s 2001 entry into the World Trade Organization, which gave it permanent normal trade relations with the United States. As vice president, he backed the Obama administration’s Asia-Pacific trade deal, the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), arguing it would have helped check China’s influence in the region.
  • He told CFR that China’s detention of more than one million Muslims in the Xinjiang region is “unconscionable.” He says the United States “must speak out,” and that he would support sanctions against the individuals and companies involved, as well as a UN Security Council condemnation.

Biden calls China the biggest national security threat to the United States, pointing to Beijing’s efforts to undermine U.S. alliances in the Indo-Pacific, its assertive stance on Taiwan, and its ability to conduct cyberattacks on critical infrastructure. He has moved to de-risk the United States’ economy from China’s, maintaining several of Trump’s protectionist policies while introducing a raft of his own.

  • Biden calls Chinese President Xi Jinping a “dictator,” but says that the United States should de-risk and not decouple from China. Biden’s administration has placed stringent restrictions on high-tech products that it deems critical to national security.
  • He has retained tariffs imposed by the Trump administration for $360 billion worth of products and introduced a raft of his own, while pressing U.S. partners in the European Union and elsewhere to increase their restrictions on Chinese tech. 
  • He introduced sweeping export controls aimed at curtailing China’s access to semiconductors and other advanced technologies. He also banned some U.S. investment in Chinese high-tech industries. These restrictions followed major legislation that subsidized domestic manufacturing of computer chips, electric vehicle parts, and other new technologies. Firms that produce such goods in China are not eligible for U.S. subsidies.
  • In April 2024, he signed a bill forcing the sale of social media app TikTok, which is owned by a Chinese company. The legislation will ban TikTok if a sale is not completed by 2025. 
  • He has also maintained sanctions on Chinese individuals and entities associated with crackdowns on democracy in Hong Kong and human rights abuses against China’s minority Uyghur Muslims in the Xinjiang region. He signed bipartisan legislation requiring U.S. firms to demonstrate that their supply chains did not include forced labor by Uyghurs.
  • Biden has sought to counter Chinese influence in the Indo-Pacific by building closer ties with U.S. allies in the region, including Australia, Japan, the Philippines, and South Korea. In April 2023, the United States and the Philippines held their largest-ever joint military drills. 
  • Biden has repeatedly said that the United States would defend Taiwan if China attacked, despite a long-standing U.S. policy of “strategic ambiguity” toward the island that China claims as its own. But after each instance, the Biden administration has walked back the comments.
  • In September 2023, Biden added China to the U.S. government’s list of major drug transit or major illicit drug producing countries, citing its contribution to the U.S. fentanyl crisis. That same month, the Department of Justice indicted eight China-based firms for fentanyl-related crimes.
  • Following the first of two meetings between Biden and Xi during Biden’s presidency, the two countries agreed to pursue policies aimed at tripling global renewable energy capacity. China committed to reducing the fossil fuel methane for the first time, but not coal, the dirtiest fuel. 
  • Biden unveiled two programs aimed at building infrastructure in lower-income countries to counter China’s Belt and Road Initiative, which he calls a “debt and noose agreement.”

Biden says climate change is “the greatest threat to our security,” and calls for a “revolution” to address it. He has released a national plan to reduce emissions and invest in new technology and infrastructure. As a senator, he expressed alarm over greenhouse gases, but also supported controversial energy sources such as fracking and so-called clean coal.

  • His climate plan, released in June 2019, calls the Green New Deal a “crucial framework” and likewise advocates for a society-wide effort to reduce emissions, invest in infrastructure, create new jobs, and advance social justice.
  • The plan would commit the U.S. economy to net-zero emissions by 2050. It envisions $1.7 trillion in direct government spending on clean energy. It promises executive action on methane emissions, stricter fuel-economy standards, and nationwide energy efficiency standards. Biden also opposes any new drilling, including fracking, on public lands.
  • It promises a return to the 2015 Paris climate agreement and a diplomatic push to make its targets more ambitious. Biden also wants to use trade policy as a climate tool by putting tariffs on high-carbon products from other countries.
  • It advocates for major reforms in transportation, agriculture, and housing to reduce their carbon footprint and create jobs. 
  • In July 2020, Biden expanded on the 2019 plan, upping his budget proposal to more than $2 trillion in an effort to achieve a carbon-free electricity sector by 2035, invest more in low-income communities and communities of color, build clean infrastructure, and leverage the federal government to purchase zero-emissions vehicles. The proposal also frames this spending as a plank of Biden’s post-pandemic economic recovery plan.
  • He told CFR that he would bar U.S. foreign aid and financing for coal-fired power plants overseas, provide debt relief for countries implementing green policies, and expand Group of Twenty efforts to reduce fossil fuel subsidies worldwide.
  • He touts the record of the Obama administration, including $90 billion for clean energy in the 2009 stimulus law, tighter fuel-economy standards, new regulations on coal-fired power plants, and the negotiation of the Paris accord. 
  • The Obama administration’s “all-of-the-above” energy strategy also supported the fracking boom that helped double U.S. oil production. In 2008, Biden expressed support for clean coal technologies opposed by many environmentalists and declined to vote on the unsuccessful Climate Security Act, the most ambitious emissions-capping legislation to reach the Senate floor.

Biden has made addressing climate change a pillar of his presidency, calling climate change “the ultimate threat to humanity.” He has pursued an ambitious agenda, passing the largest clean energy and climate investment bill in U.S. history, expanding land and water protections, and creating a climate action–based job training program. However, he has also permitted new fossil fuel projects and overseen record-high oil and gas production.

  • On his first day in office, Biden signed executive orders returning the United States to the 2015 Paris Agreement, under which nearly two hundred countries agreed to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions to limit global temperature rise; revoking a presidential permit for construction of the Keystone XL oil pipeline between Canada and the United States; and halting new oil and gas leases on public lands and waters. (That moratorium was later overturned by the courts.) 
  • He has committed to an ambitious goal of achieving a carbon pollution–free power sector by 2035 and a net–zero emissions economy by 2050. Biden’s Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has tightened vehicle emissions standards, though it also narrowed the scope of a pending rule that would exempt existing gas-fired power plants from upcoming carbon emissions regulations.
  • In 2022, Biden signed into law the Inflation Reduction Act (IRA), the largest investment in climate-related policies in U.S. history. The bill budgets roughly $370 billion for emissions-reduction efforts, including tax credits and subsidies for clean energy projects. The IRA builds on the 2021 Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act (IIJA), a $1.2 trillion law to upgrade U.S. infrastructure and spur the adoption of electric vehicles, among other measures. 
  • His administration created the American Climate Corps, a jobs program that aims to train tens of thousands of young people in high-demand skills for careers in climate action and clean energy. The program is modeled after President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s Civilian Conservation Corps.
  • In 2023, his administration reached a multistate deal to redistribute water from the Colorado River, which serves some forty million people. Under the agreement, Arizona, California, and Nevada will draw less from the river in exchange for additional federal funding.
  • He has approved a range of new fossil fuel projects, including an $8 billion oil drilling project in northern Alaska. However, he also announced restrictions on new oil and gas leasing on 13 million acres (5.3 million hectares) of an Alaskan federal petroleum reserve. Under his administration, oil and gas production has continued to grow to historic highs, with the United States becoming the world’s largest crude oil producer. 
  • As part of the IIJA, the Biden administration created the Civil Nuclear Credit Program to invest $6 billion in existing nuclear energy facilities. In March 2024, his administration announced that it will lend $1.5 billion to restart a shuttered nuclear plant in Michigan, the nation’s first such recommissioning.
  • The administration temporarily paused approvals for new export facilities for liquefied natural gas (LNG), a move it says is in line with its climate goals. 

Biden has put forward a national plan to address the pandemic of the new coronavirus disease, COVID-19. He pledges to strengthen presidential leadership and spend “whatever it takes” to expand testing, contact tracing, treatment, and other health services; support the economy; and prepare for future pandemics. He criticizes Trump’s response as “political theater” and promises to return the United States to a position of global leadership on the crisis.

  • Biden has released a pandemic plan with a three-pronged approach: a health response, an economic response, and a global response. He cites his experience as vice president, during which he helped lead the Obama administration’s responses to the 2009 H1N1 pandemic and the 2014–16 Ebola epidemic. The plan would nationalize the coronavirus response, rather than relegate it to state governments as the Trump administration has done.
  • His plan calls for national emergency health-care mobilization that ramps up testing, makes it free, and provides transparency on the resulting data. It also promises to rapidly expand hospital capacity by quickly creating temporary hospitals, in part through the mobilization of Defense Department resources; establish a national corps of at least one hundred thousand contact tracers; and accelerate the creation of vaccines and other treatments. He would also mandate wearing masks in public.
  • The plan promises zero out-of-pocket expenses for anyone who needs coronavirus-related health services of any kind by amending the relevant laws governing both private and public health insurance plans. The plan doesn’t offer a cost estimate, but campaign officials say Biden would spend “whatever it takes” to get the coronavirus crisis under control.
  • It proposes to incentivize businesses to produce more personal protective equipment (PPE) such as masks and gloves. His administration would work with businesses to return some pharmaceutical and medical equipment supply chains back to the United States, after decades of outsourcing much of that production abroad.
  • He promises to lead an expanded global response that would be coordinated by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and would assist vulnerable nations. He pledges to rejoin the World Health Organization and cooperate more closely with the United Nations and other major world players.
  • He says he will restore the White House National Security Council Directorate for Global Health Security and Biodefense, an office within the National Security Council for preparing and coordinating the response to pandemics that the Trump administration disbanded in 2018. He promises to expand staffing and funding for the State Department and other federal agency health programs.
  • He faults Beijing for a lack of transparency in the early stages of the crisis, and says that he would have insisted on sending U.S. health experts to the country.
  • On the economic front, his plan proposes a raft of federal programs to protect workers. These include mandated paid sick leave policies, expanded unemployment benefits, and additional funds for federal food programs, child care programs, and loans to small businesses.
  • It also proposes a new “State and Local Emergency Fund” that will allow governors and mayors to access federal dollars for a range of purposes, including mortgage and rental relief, jobs programs, or direct cash payments to citizens.

Biden has been a major proponent of a strategy he called “counterterrorism plus.” This approach emphasizes fighting terrorist networks in foreign countries using small groups of U.S. special forces and aggressive air strikes instead of large troop deployments.

  • This counterterrorism strategy largely defined the Obama administration’s policy in fighting jihadists and other militant groups around the world, including in Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iraq, West Africa, the Horn of Africa, and the Arabian peninsula, where U.S. drone strikes have rapidly increased. These operations controversially included the direct targeting of militants with U.S. citizenship, such as Anwar al-Awlaki.
  • He opposes Trump’s executive order barring travelers from several majority-Muslim countries, which the Trump administration says is necessary to limit entry of would-be terrorists into the country.
  • He told CFR that U.S. policy must focus on ensuring the remnants of al-Qaeda and the self-proclaimed Islamic State cannot reconstitute themselves.
  • He has supported a number of expansions of federal anti-terrorism authority. He introduced an unsuccessful 1995 law to expand government surveillance powers, much of which was incorporated into the 2001 Patriot Act, which he supported. In 2015, the Obama administration approved the USA Freedom Act, which renewed the Patriot Act with some new restrictions on surveillance.    
  • He was a critic of other federal surveillance measures, voting against updates to the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) in 2007 and 2008 that authorized the collection of emails, search histories, and other personal data of U.S. citizens.
  • He says that as vice president, he was an advocate of closing the detention facility at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, which he has called an “advertisement” for recruiting terrorists. Attempts to fully close the facility were blocked by Congress.

Biden says that cyber threats are a growing challenge for U.S. national security, election integrity, and the health of the nation’s democracy. Meanwhile, he thinks government should be pressuring tech companies to reform their practices around privacy, surveillance, and hate speech.

  • As president, he would call a global summit to pressure tech companies to make pledges that they will ensure their platforms “are not empowering the surveillance state, facilitating repression in China and elsewhere, spreading hate, [or] spurring people to violence.
  • He told CFR that the United States should use its foreign assistance to provide the world with alternatives to China’s “dystopian” surveillance technologies. 
  • He says he would work with U.S. allies to develop 5G cellular networks and other advanced technologies to ensure they remain secure from intrusion by U.S. adversaries.
  • He is co-chair of the Transatlantic Commission on Election Integrity, a group founded in 2018 by former U.S. and EU policymakers to combat the shared threat of election hacking, especially by Russia.
  • He has repeatedly warned of the vulnerability of U.S. cyber infrastructure—including transportation networks, electrical grids, and election systems—to attack, sabotage, and infiltration, and calls for greater investment and higher regulatory standards.
  • He warns about the ability of China and Russia to exploit loopholes in the U.S. regulatory system and use the financial industry to launder money to get around the ban on foreign funding of elections.
  • While Biden has called some of the proposals to break up Facebook and other social media giants “premature,” he says the option should be consideredHe argues for the repeal of regulations that exempt Facebook and other online platforms from responsibility for what their users post.

Biden has supported some U.S. military interventions abroad and opposed others. He has often advocated for narrow objectives in the use of force, and he has expressed skepticism over the ability of the United States to reshape foreign societies. He is wary of unilateral efforts, emphasizing the importance of diplomacy and working through alliances and global institutions.

  • He says that force should be used “only to defend our vital interests, when the objective is clear and achievable,” and promises to end what he calls “the forever wars” in Afghanistan and the Middle East. 
  • In 2016, speaking about the use of military force, he argued that “we need a real strong dose of humility about [our] capacity to fundamentally alter circumstances around the world.” He rules out using U.S. troops for any regime-change efforts.
  • He says that the United States has both a moral duty and a security interest to respond with military force to genocide or chemical weapons use around the world. He also favors using force to avoid the disruption of the global oil trade.
  • He told CFR that he would bring U.S. combat troops home from Afghanistan in his first term by launching a high-level diplomatic effort that includes Afghanistan’s neighbors. He favors keeping a small number of special forces and intelligence assets in the country to combat terrorism, while pursuing peace talks with the Taliban. 
  • He supported the 2001 invasion of Afghanistan, but as vice president pushed for troop reductions and a more limited mission. He argues that 2019 reports that U.S. policymakers misled the public about the progress of the Afghan war vindicate his opposition to “nation-building” there.
  • He argues that military spending is too focused on traditional warfare rather than emerging areas for defense such as space and cyberspace. He says the United States must seek to maintain its superiority amid a “return to great power competition” with China and Russia.
  • He supported the 2003 invasion of Iraq, but he now calls it a “mistake” and touts his role in withdrawing 150,000 troops from the country in 2011. 
  • He says he would “reaffirm” the ban on torture and provide more transparency on military operations, particularly as it relates to civilian casualties.
  • He is a strong proponent of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), calling it “the single most important military alliance in the history of the world.” 
  • As vice president, he was against the 2011 intervention in Libya and skeptical of committing U.S. troops to Syria.
  • Biden has criticized the expansion of executive war powers, saying as a candidate for president in 2008 that the use of force without congressional approval, except in the case of an imminent threat, is an impeachable offense. 
  • He promises a new federal initiative to address suicide and mental health issues among veterans that will include increased funding to Veterans Affairs health programs.

Biden is a strong advocate for multilateral cooperation and a longtime champion of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, in 2022, has prompted NATO to reinforce its deterrence and defense posture against Russian President Vladimir Putin’s nuclear saber-rattling. And, in the face of growing great-power competition with China, the Biden administration has sought to shore up U.S. diplomatic and military relations with allies in the Indo-Pacific.

  • His administration’s 2022 National Security Strategy [PDF] broadly maintained the Trump administration’s focus on great-power competition with China and Russia. 
  • Biden has reaffirmed the U.S. commitment to NATO, which he has called “the single most important military alliance in the history of the world.” Following Russia’s invasion of Ukraine in 2022, he supported NATO enlargement by pushing for approval of Finland and Sweden’s accession bids. (Finland and Sweden joined NATO in 2023 and 2024, respectively.) 
  • The Biden administration also formulated an updated Indo-Pacific Strategy [PDF], which pledges to support “a free and open Indo-Pacific.” To that end, Biden has inked a new defense pact with Papua New Guinea and advanced an existing defense agreement with the Philippines. His administration has also deepened security cooperation with Japan and South Korea, and it held the inaugural in-person summit of the so-called Quad—an alliance comprising the United States, Australia, India, and Japan—which aims to counter China in the Indo-Pacific. 
  • Biden also announced a new trilateral pact with Australia and the United Kingdom, known as AUKUS, that seeks to bolster the countries’ allied deterrence and defense capabilities against China, including by supplying Australia with nuclear-powered submarines.
  • The omnibus defense spending bill for fiscal year 2024 authorizes $886 billion for the Pentagon and extends federal authorities’ spying powers, among other measures.
  • Biden has made defending democracy a pillar of his presidency, warning against the rising tide of populism domestically and globally and saying that modern geopolitics is a “battle between democracy and autocracy.” He frames helping Ukraine defend itself against Russia and continuing to back Taiwan as part of this effort. 
  • The administration’s new Strategy Toward Sub-Saharan Africa [PDF] emphasizes democracy protection, and in 2022, a U.S.-Africa Leaders Summit produced commitments to increase U.S. military aid and training to African governments. 
  • Long a skeptic of what he once called “the forever wars” in Afghanistan and the Middle East, Biden withdrew all remaining U.S. troops from Afghanistan in August 2021 as part of an earlier deal struck by Trump.
  • Biden has announced his intention to shut down the detention center at Guantánamo Bay, Cuba, by the end of his term, though his efforts have been impeded by acts of Congress that prohibit federal funds from being used to transfer detainees to the United States.

He has authorized use of the Defense Production Act, which allows the U.S. government to intervene in strategic industries, to “rebuild and expand” the United States’ defense industrial base. Impacted sectors include those related to hypersonic weaponry, critical tech and energy supply chains, and circuit boards used in missile and radar systems.

Biden emphasizes that the United States cannot deal with the new challenges it faces without close relationships with its allies and the cooperation of international institutions. He says Trump’s withdrawal from treaties and his denigration of alliances has “bankrupted America’s word in the world.”

  • He wants to convene all democratic nations in a “Summit for Democracy” to discuss three major areas: fighting corruption, defending against rising authoritarianism, and advancing human rights.
  • He says he will make diplomacy the premier tool of U.S. foreign policy and will “rebuild” the State Department.
  • He argues that Trump has “belittled, undermined, and in some cases abandoned U.S. allies and partners.”
  • He promises to recommit to alliances and reenter agreements, including restoring U.S. support for NATO, rejoining the Iran nuclear deal and the Paris climate accord, and strengthening alliances with Australia, Israel, Japan, and South Korea.
  • He warns about the rising tide of populism and nationalism around the world, and argues that if the United States withdraws from global leadership, “authoritarian powers will rush in.” He says Trump’s “admiration for autocrats” is dangerous. 
  • He told CFR that the United States’ greatest foreign policy accomplishment has been the “investments in collective security and prosperity” made in partnership with U.S. allies.

Biden has positioned himself as a champion of the middle class, warning that decreasing economic opportunity and mobility is worsening the polarization and radicalization of American life. He proposes trillions of dollars in new federal spending on U.S. products, infrastructure, and research, arguing that “economic security is national security.”

  • He argues that the “basic bargain” with workers has broken down, and that economic globalization has had major downsides. He says globalization has “hollowed out” the middle class, led to the loss of millions of U.S. manufacturing jobs, and accelerated inequality. 
  • He says the 2017 tax reform has made these problems worse by cutting taxes for the wealthiest individuals. He wants to repeal the 2017 law, instead raising corporate taxes and taxes on investments and other passive income. He would also increase middle-class benefits such as the child tax credit. 
  • That additional tax revenue, he says, would help fund his $700 billion “Buy American” economic plan, outlined in July 2020. Under this plan, the federal government would spend $400 billion on U.S. goods and services over four years and devote another $300 billion to research and development of clean energy and other technologies. 
  • He has described Trump’s manufacturing strategy as “trickle-down economics that works for corporate executives and Wall Street investors, but not working families.”
  • He also wants to invest trillions of dollars into American infrastructure. He proposes putting at least $1.7 trillion—which he says would be generated by reversing the 2017 tax cuts—toward clean energy and other infrastructure. 
  • He has consistently proposed major reforms to U.S. education, pushing for free community college and vocational training, as well as free public four-year college. He says this is essential for U.S. workers to compete internationally and adapt in an economy under pressure from automation and other technological disruptions.
  • He proposes policies to strengthen worker leverage in the marketplace: banning noncompete rules, ending wage secrecy, and implementing a national $15 per hour minimum wage.  
  • He wants to do more to challenge monopolies, arguing that the Trump administration has been weak on antitrust. He has said he is open to the federal government breaking up dominant firms like Facebook.

The Biden administration says its “Bidenomics” economic policy has three pillars: making massive public investments in energy and infrastructure, growing the middle class, and challenging monopolistic consolidation. Biden has pledged to raise taxes on corporations and the wealthiest Americans in a bid to reduce record deficits. 

  • Biden has signed legislation authorizing trillions of dollars in new public spending. In 2021, the bipartisan Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act, the largest infrastructure spending bill in decades, authorized $1.2 trillion in spending toward U.S. roads, railways, airports, and other infrastructure. Additional subsidies for semiconductor and climate investments have reached more than $800 billion.
  • Nonpartisan watchdogs expect that Biden’s spending programs will increase the growing federal deficit by more than $1 trillion over the next decade. The deficit is now $1.7 trillion, and the national debt has climbed past $30 trillion, or more than 100 percent of U.S. economic output.
  • Biden says raising taxes on the richest Americans would “wipe out” the debt. He opposes extending tax cuts that the 2017 Tax Cuts and Jobs Act granted to Americans with yearly household incomes over $400,000. He has also proposed raising the corporate tax rate from 21 to 28 percent and implementing a wealth tax that would impose a 25 percent levy on individuals with more than $100 million worth of total assets.
  • In 2021, Biden brokered a global agreement to tax corporations at a minimum of 15 percent, though it is yet to be implemented. One year later, he introduced a 15 percent corporate minimum tax on U.S. companies with annual income over $1 billion.
  • Biden has made antitrust policy a priority, challenging alleged monopolies in the aviation, energy, and technology sectors. In 2022, Biden appointees leading the Federal Trade Commission and Department of Justice recorded the most challenges to proposed mergers since the United States began requiring premerger reviews in 1976.

When Biden took office, the death toll from COVID-19 had surpassed four hundred thousand people. As president, he has expanded access to testing and treatment for COVID-19, launched a nationwide vaccination campaign against the disease, and signed a $1.9 trillion pandemic relief package. His administration also rejoined the World Health Organization, which Trump had threatened to withdraw the United States from, and it revoked a controversial policy that blocked U.S. foreign aid from funding any organizations that promote or perform abortions.

  • Biden criticized China for a lack of transparency during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic and accused Beijing of withholding “critical information” on the novel coronavirus’s origins. In March 2023, he ordered the release of U.S. intelligence materials on the potential link between the virus’s initial outbreak and a laboratory in the Chinese city of Wuhan. The following month, he ended the U.S. national emergency in response to the pandemic, three years after it was declared.
  • His national pandemic strategy [PDF] focused on quickly ramping up vaccine production, protecting essential workers, and expanding access to testing and treatment. In March 2021, Biden signed into law a $1.9 trillion pandemic relief bill, which provided direct payments of up to $1,400 per person, a $300 federal boost to weekly jobless benefits, and $350 billion to local governments, states, and territories and tribes, among other measures.
  • His administration pursued an aggressive COVID-19 vaccination policy that included free vaccine access and a nationwide vaccine mandate that would have affected most large employers. (The Supreme Court struck down the mandate.) His administration also directed billions of dollars to GAVI, the Vaccine Alliance, a public-private partnership that has provided billions of doses to lower-income countries.
  • In October 2022, he unveiled a new national biodefense strategy [PDF] that aims to help the United States better prepare for large-scale biological or viral threats that could emerge in the future. The strategy led to the creation of the White House’s Office of Pandemic Preparedness and Response Policy, tasked with coordinating, leading, and implementing pandemic preparedness efforts.
  • Like Trump, Biden invoked the Defense Production Act to help manage the pandemic. His administration used the law to direct the private sector to increase critical medical supplies, expand access to testing, and spur vaccine production.
  • He issued an executive order retracting Trump’s decision to withdraw from the World Health Organization, to which the United States is one of the largest donors.
  • Biden has sought to address the U.S. opioid epidemic, including by declaring synthetic opioid trafficking a national emergency; sanctioning firms and individuals in China, a critical node in the drug’s supply chain; and pushing China and Mexico to do more to cut the flow of fentanyl into the United States.
  • Biden rescinded the so-called Mexico City policy blocking abortion-related programs from receiving U.S. foreign aid, saying that it undermined U.S. efforts to support women’s health. He also restored funding to the UN Population Fund that Trump had revoked over the fund’s alleged support for forced abortions in China.

Biden has condemned Trump’s approach to immigrants and asylum seekers, calling it “morally bankrupt” and “racist.” He supports comprehensive immigration reform, and has in the past backed more restrictionist policies. He emphasizes the need to address the root causes of immigration in the countries of origin.

  • Biden highlights his role on immigration in the Obama administration, where he led policy on addressing the 2014 wave of unaccompanied minors arriving at the U.S. southern border. He says the $750 million aid package the administration gave to Central American governments helped stem the flow of migrants.
  • He continues to back the broad outlines of Obama’s unsuccessful 2013 comprehensive reform plan, including a path to citizenship for undocumented residents paired with stronger border enforcement. He says border policy should focus on beefing up screening at legal points of entry, not building a wall.
  • He would overturn policies that separate families at the border and prolong detentions. He also vows to establish public-private networks to address humanitarian needs at the border.
  • He opposes Trump’s executive order barring travelers from several majority-Muslim countries, which the Trump administration says is necessary to limit entry of would-be terrorists into the country.
  • He says Dreamers—undocumented residents brought to the United States as children—should be immediately granted citizenship. 
  • He criticizes Trump on punishing so-called sanctuary cities that refuse to cooperate with federal immigration enforcement. He condemns family separation and overcrowded detention facilities and wants to “strengthen and streamline” the U.S. asylum system. 
  • He also wants to reverse Trump on temporary protected status (TPS)—restoring the immigration program for citizens of El Salvador, Haiti, Nicaragua, Sudan, and elsewhere and extending it to Venezuelans. 
  • He has rebutted criticism from other candidates who have attacked Obama’s deportation policy—three million people were deported during his tenure—saying it is “immoral” to compare Obama and Trump.
  • As a senator, he voted for the 2006 Secure Fence Act, which authorized seven hundred miles of fencing on the U.S.-Mexico border, and a 1996 law that increased penalties for illegal immigration and expanded the government’s deportation authority. In 2008, he proposed jailing employers that hire undocumented workers, cracking down on sanctuary cities, and building more border fencing to stop drug dealers from Mexico. 

Biden campaigned on overturning nearly all of Trump’s restrictive immigration policies. He supports comprehensive immigration reform; to this end, he has worked to expand some asylum and refugee protections, increase the capacity of some guest worker visa programs, and address the root causes of migration from Central America. However, he has also restricted asylum access more broadly amid a historic surge of migration at the U.S.-Mexico border.

  • On his first day in office, Biden sent to Congress his own proposal for wide-ranging immigration reform. Among other provisions, the U.S. Citizenship Act of 2021 sought to establish an eight-year path to citizenship for undocumented immigrants, reduce visa backlogs, and create new systems for asylum seekers and other migrants to legally apply for protection from outside the United States. The bill did not advance in Congress.
  • He suspended construction of the wall at the southern U.S. border and rescinded the national emergency declaration that allowed Trump to divert funds to build out the barrier. But Biden has also faced criticism for his administration’s use of border patrol facilities to house migrants. 
  • With migration reaching record levels, Biden has faced pushback from several Republican-led border states. Most notably, the administration sued Texas to stop a state law that the White House says improperly overrides federal immigration policy by allowing local law enforcement to arrest migrants who cross the border illegally.
  • Under Biden, the overall number of deportations carried out by U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) surpassed 142,000 in fiscal year 2023, compared to just over 59,000 in fiscal year 2021. Detentions have also risen to more than 273,000, up from slightly over 211,400 in fiscal year 2021.
  • Biden has pledged to rebuild the U.S. refugee resettlement program after Trump made large cuts. Biden raised the annual admissions cap to 125,000 for fiscal years 2022, 2023, and 2024, up from a record low of eighteen thousand in 2020. However, actual refugee admissions only reached roughly sixty thousand in fiscal year 2023. The administration also created new parole programs that allow additional Afghan and Ukrainian refugees to come to the United States.
  • Biden ended Trump’s 2019 “Remain in Mexico” program that required most asylum seekers to wait in Mexico while their cases were processed in U.S. immigration courts. Court decisions also forced Biden to continue implementing Title 42, which allowed border officials to expel migrants on public health grounds, until 2023.
  • He has sought to restore asylum access, including by ending daily limits on asylum applications and restoring protections to victims of domestic and gang violence. 
  • However, his administration unveiled a new policy in 2023 that allows the government to deny asylum to migrants who did not previously apply for it in a third country and to those who cross the border illegally. This approach includes new screening centers in several Latin American countries. 
  • In 2024, his administration also issued an order temporarily blocking people who illegally cross the border from seeking asylum once the number of daily crossings exceeds a certain threshold. A separate order also expanded green card access for certain undocumented immigrants who are married to U.S. citizens.
  • He expanded and renewed temporary protected status (TPS) for hundreds of thousands of eligible nationals of several countries, including Afghanistan, Cameroon, and Ukraine. He has also deferred the removal of most Palestinian migrants from the country for eighteen months amid Israel’s war in the Gaza Strip. 
  • He expanded the capacity of some guest worker visa programs in response to the increasing demand for temporary workers. In October 2023, his administration released a proposal to modernize the H1B visa program for workers with specialized knowledge, including by tightening some eligibility criteria.
  • He has appealed a federal ruling declaring unlawful the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) policy, an Obama-era program that provides deportation relief and work permits to undocumented migrants brought to the United States illegally as children. 
  • He reinstated the Central American Minors program, which has allowed thousands of children from the so-called Northern Triangle countries of El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras to gain refugee status or temporary legal residence before traveling to the southern U.S. border. (Trump discontinued the program in 2017.) In 2021, the Biden administration launched a four-year, $4 billion initiative to address the drivers of Central American migration.

Both as a senator and as vice president, Biden has been deeply engaged in shaping U.S. diplomacy and military policy across the Middle East. As a candidate, he is running on his experience dealing with Iraq, Israel, Syria, Iran, and others in the region.

  • Biden has been a strong supporter of Israel throughout his political career, calling himself a Zionist. He says his commitment to Israel’s security is “ironclad” and that, while he promises to place “constant pressure” on Israel to resolve its conflicts, he would not withhold aid.
  • He told CFR he backs a two-state solution to the Israel-Palestinian conflict, which he says Trump’s unilateral approach has made more difficult. He supports keeping the U.S. embassy in Jerusalem after Trump moved it there in 2018.
  • He also says Israel must stop settlement activity in the occupied territories and provide more aid to Gaza, and that Palestinian leaders should stop the “glorification of violence.” He calls on Arab states to normalize relations with Israel. He says he does not support Israeli government plans to annex the West Bank, arguing such a move would “choke off any hope for peace.”
  • He criticizes the Boycott, Divestment, and Sanctions (BDS) movement, which seeks to put economic pressure on Israel, and says it “veers into anti-Semitism,” and that he would oppose any BDS efforts in Congress.
  • He calls Iran a “destabilizing” force in the region and told CFR it must never be allowed to develop nuclear weapons.
  • He calls Trump’s approach to Iran a “self-inflicted disaster”, arguing that his withdrawal from the 2015 Iran nuclear deal has failed to keep Tehran from advancing its nuclear program. Biden pledges to rejoin the agreement if Iran returns to compliance.
  • He says that Iranian commander Qasem Soleimani, who was killed by a U.S. air strike in January 2020, deserved justice for his role in attacks on U.S. troops, but that Trump’s decision to target him was an “enormous escalation” made without any plan for the likely consequences. He says Trump has no authority to undertake war with Iran without congressional approval.
  • He condemns Trump’s withdrawal of U.S. troops from northern Syria, which he calls a betrayal of the Kurds and “the most shameful thing any president has done in modern history in terms of foreign policy.” He says Turkey “must pay a heavy price” for its military campaign in Syrian Kurdish territory. 
  • He says he is “very concerned” about the United States keeping nuclear weapons in Turkey, and proposes stronger support for the domestic opposition to President Recep Tayyip Erdogan. As vice president, Biden publicly apologized to Erdogan for suggesting Turkey supported the Islamic State.
  • As vice president, he was skeptical of committing U.S. troops to Syria, arguing that any significant use of force would have had unpredictable consequences. In 2018, he called Syria one of the United States’ “biggest conundrums.” 
  • He has long been deeply involved in Iraq policy. As a senator, he supported President George W. Bush’s 2003 invasion of Iraq, but opposed the 2007 surge of additional troops. Instead, Biden proposed partitioning Iraq into three self-governing regions. As vice president, he oversaw the 2011 withdrawal of the remaining 150,000 U.S. troops and then the return of U.S. forces to fight the Islamic State in 2014.
  • He told CFR he wants a “reassessment” of U.S. support for Saudi Arabia in the wake of the murder of journalist Jamal Khashoggi, the Saudi-led war in Yemen, and domestic human rights violations.
  • Though the Obama administration backed the Saudi war in Yemen, Biden says Washington should end its involvement in the “unwinnable conflict.” He also says he would stop arms sales to the kingdom and treat Riyadh like a “pariah” on the world stage.
  • He has long been critical of Saudi Arabia. In 2014, he blamed the country and its Sunni allies for allowing resources to flow to the Islamic State. 

Throughout his presidency, Biden has been deeply engaged in shaping U.S. policy towards the Middle East. He began his term seeking to rejoin the Iran nuclear deal and normalize relations between Israel and Saudi Arabia, but renewed conflict between Israel and Palestinian militant group Hamas has since preoccupied his administration’s efforts in the region.

  • Biden has been a strong supporter of Israel throughout his political career, calling himself a “Zionist.” Following Hamas’s attack on southern Israel in October 2023, Biden has backed Israel’s right to defend itself and pressed for an additional $15 billion in military aid to the country. He has called his support for Israel “rock solid and unwavering.” 
  • However, he has also sought to restrain Israel’s military response amid its war against Hamas, calling Israel’s actions “over the top” due to mounting civilian casualties in the Gaza Strip. His administration has repeatedly sought to negotiate cease-fire deals, most recently in June 2024, and hostage exchanges between Israel and Hamas. 
  • Biden says a two-state solution is the only way to permanently end the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. He has previously called on Arab states to normalize relations with Israel, though his efforts on this front have stalled amid the Israel-Hamas war.
  • Biden calls Israel’s settlement activity in the occupied Palestinian territories “inconsistent with international law.” In February 2024, he signed an executive order that paved the way for the U.S. government to impose its first sanctions against Israeli individuals involved in attacks on Palestinians; the day Biden signed the order, the U.S. Treasury Department sanctioned four Israeli settlers accused of violence in the West Bank.
  • Biden began his term seeking a normalization deal between Israel and Saudi Arabia. In exchange, Riyadh had asked for formalized U.S. security guarantees, cooperation on a civilian nuclear program, and Israeli concessions toward Palestinians, but negotiations came to a standstill after the October 7 Hamas attack.
  • As a candidate in 2020, Biden had pledged to treat Saudi Arabia as a “pariah” for its human rights violations, including its role in the war in Yemen. However, the Biden administration continues to describe Saudi Arabia as a “strong partner,” and Washington remains Riyadh’s largest supplier of arms. 
  • In partnership with the United Kingdom, he ordered a military campaign against the Iran-backed, Yemen-based Houthi rebel group, which says it is targeting commercial vessels in the Red Sea to support Hamas in its war with Israel. The Biden administration says the strikes will go on “as long as they need to.” 
  • Biden has criticized Trump’s withdrawal from the Iran nuclear deal and pursued talks with Tehran about resuming the agreement. But progress has been hindered and potentially halted over Iran’s support of Hamas, the Houthis, and other groups antagonistic to the United States. After Iran-aligned forces killed three U.S. service members in Jordan in January 2024, U.S. military forces struck more than eighty-five Iran-linked targets in Iraq and Syria.

Biden supports diplomacy with Pyongyang, but says that Trump’s talks with Kim Jong-un have been unsuccessful and potentially counterproductive, serving only to “legitimize a dictator.”

  • Biden supports continued negotiations, but says they would depend on Kim taking concrete steps toward dismantling his nuclear program, with a final goal of a fully denuclearized North Korea. He says he would not continue direct personal diplomacy with Kim.
  • He told CFR he would launch a “sustained, coordinated campaign” with U.S. allies and with China to advance negotiations. He says Trump has “ostracized” the United States from its Asian allies, especially South Korea, and that he would seek to deepen Washington’s relationship with Seoul.
  • He has called Trump’s repeated meetings with Kim “photo-ops,” and he argues that they have worsened the situation by bolstering Kim’s regime without securing any concessions.
  • “We still don’t have a single commitment from North Korea...not one missile or nuclear weapon has been destroyed, not one inspector is on the ground,” Biden has said.

Biden warns that Russia under President Vladimir Putin is “assaulting the foundations of Western democracy” by seeking to weaken NATO, divide the European Union, and undermine the U.S. electoral system. He also warns of Russia using Western financial institutions to launder billions of dollars, money he says is then used to influence politicians.

  • Biden is a longtime champion of NATO, and has encouraged its expansion eastward, most recently with the accession of Montenegro. In 2009, he supported the so far unsuccessful ambitions of Georgia and Ukraine to join the alliance.
  • He calls for an independent investigation into “Russia’s assault on American democracy,” along the lines of the 9/11 Commission, to examine how to deter Moscow’s ongoing efforts at disruption. 
  • He says that the United States and its European allies must strengthen their cyber infrastructure, close foreign-money loopholes, increase the transparency of online platforms, and better coordinate intelligence and law enforcement efforts.
  • They must also invest more in NATO, which he says should forward deploy more troops to Eastern Europe to deter Russian aggression.
  • He argues that the United States and Europe must “impose meaningful costs” on Moscow. Biden touts the sanctions the Obama administration levied against Russia after its 2014 invasion of Ukraine and says they should be continued and expanded as necessary.
  • He told CFR that he would increase U.S. military assistance to Ukraine, conditioned on anticorruption reforms, to ensure “Russia pays a heavier price” for its interference. As vice president, he advocated for sending weapons to Ukraine to support it against the Russia-backed insurgency in its eastern territories, and he supported Trump’s moves to do so as well.
  • He sharply criticized Trump for failing to respond to intelligence reports that reportedly indicated Moscow was offering bounties to Taliban-linked militias to kill U.S. and coalition soldiers in Afghanistan, calling it a “dereliction of duty.” 
  • He opposes Trump’s advocacy for readmitting Russia to the Group of Seven, from which it was expelled after its 2014 annexation of Crimea.
  • Biden has faced criticism from Trump for his family’s ties to Ukraine, specifically the affiliation of his son, Hunter, with a Ukrainian energy company while Biden was serving as vice president. Biden says Hunter’s position had no connection to U.S.-Ukraine policy. Trump’s alleged efforts to use military aid to pressure Ukraine to investigate Biden were at the center of Trump’s 2019 impeachment.
  • Despite his distrust of Russian policy objectives, Biden says Washington should pursue new arms control arrangements with Moscow, beginning with the extension of the New START treaty to reduce nuclear stockpiles.

Biden says that the United States will back Ukraine’s defensive efforts against Russia for “as long as it takes” to counter the threat that a Russian victory would pose to the rest of Europe. Since Russia launched its full-scale invasion of Ukraine in 2022, Biden’s administration has directed tens of billions of dollars in financial assistance to Ukraine, imposed sanctions on Russian entities and individuals, and enlarged the U.S. military presence in Europe.

  • Biden has strongly condemned Russia’s invasion, calling it “an unprovoked and unjustified attack” and pledging to support Kyiv indefinitely. Since 2022, the United States has provided Ukraine with about $75 billion in assistance, including financial, humanitarian, and military support. In April 2024, Biden signed into law a bill that provides an additional $61 billion in new aid to Ukraine.
  • His administration has worked closely with Western allies to impose sweeping sanctions, export controls, and other penalties on Russian entities and individuals, including the Russian private military company Wagner Group. The measures have focused on isolating Russia from the global financial system, limiting its energy exports, and hampering its military capabilities.
  • Biden says the United States will boost its long-term military presence in Europe in response to the threat posed by Russia, including by building a new permanent U.S. Army headquarters in Poland. However, he has ruled out sending U.S. troops directly to Ukraine, which he says would risk a significant escalation of the conflict.
  • Prior to the outbreak of war, Biden pursued several diplomatic avenues with Russia. He and Russian President Putin agreed to extend the New START treaty, which limits the U.S. and Russian arsenals of long-range nuclear weapons. The two leaders have met once during Biden’s presidency, in 2021, with little direct contact since. 
  • Biden has faced criticism from Trump and other lawmakers for his son Hunter’s past affiliation with a Ukrainian energy company while Biden was vice president. Biden has said Hunter’s position had no connection to U.S.-Ukraine policy. Trump’s 2019 impeachment centered on his alleged efforts to use military aid to pressure Ukraine to investigate Biden.

Biden has been a longtime supporter of trade liberalization and a critic of Trump’s tariffs, arguing that Washington should take the lead on creating global trade rules and lowering barriers to commerce worldwide. However, he is also critical of some aspects of trade. 

  • He told CFR that the United States must “write the rules of the road for the world” to create a level playing field for workers and to protect the environment. He says he wouldn’t sign any new trade deal that doesn’t include “major investments” in jobs and infrastructure, or that doesn’t include labor and environmental advocates in negotiations. 
  • As vice president, he backed the Obama administration’s Asia-Pacific trade deal, the Trans-Pacific Partnership, which Trump rejected. He says backing out of the TPP “put China in the driver’s seat.”
  • Singling out China, he argues for “aggressive” retaliation against countries that break international trade rules by subsidizing their companies and stealing U.S. intellectual property. He also says existing trade laws must be better enforced, and argues that the United States must use its economic leverage to negotiate better deals.
  • He opposes Trump’s trade war with China, calling the tariffs “self-defeating” because Americans are bearing their cost.
  • As a senator in 1993, he voted for the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), a vote he continues to defend. He supports Trump’s renegotiated version, the U.S.-Mexico-Canada Agreement, because of its improved labor rights provisions.
  • He has opposed some other U.S. trade deals, like the one signed with Peru in 2006, citing weak labor and environmental protections. He supported normalizing trade relations with China in 2000. 
  • He told CFR that Washington should help African countries develop by strengthening trade relationships and opening new markets for U.S. businesses.

After championing free trade for decades as a U.S. senator and vice president, Biden has used his presidency to bring back industrial policy, applying new guardrails on trade that he says promote U.S. manufacturing, counter China’s economic rise, and address worsening climate change. 

  • He has not rejoined the Trans-Pacific Partnership, a free trade agreement from which Trump withdrew. Biden has instead sought to negotiate a successor deal that includes cooperation on supply chains but does not eliminate tariffs or increase access to the U.S. market.
  • Biden has sought to develop what he calls “foreign policy for the middle class.” He says that previous trade deals focused too much on boosting corporate profits while exposing U.S. workers to unfair competition. He says strengthening investment in U.S. manufacturing and infrastructure is a more effective way of increasing the country’s economic competitiveness.
  • He has mobilized the federal government to support strategic domestic industries, an effort known as industrial policy. In 2022, he signed the CHIPS and Science Act directing hundreds of billions of dollars toward U.S. semiconductor manufacturing.
  • That same year, he signed the Inflation Reduction Act, which contained an additional $369 billion in federal grants, loans, and tax incentives to “help build a clean energy economy.” To obtain access to CHIPS and IRA funding, companies must agree to limit operations in China, Iran, North Korea, and Russia. 
  • Biden has maintained some $360 billion in tariffs on China that were implemented by Trump while also introducing several of his own. He has also imposed a slew of new restrictions aimed at curtailing Beijing’s access to advanced technologies, and he has pushed U.S. allies, including major semiconductor suppliers Japan and the Netherlands, to implement similar restrictions.
  • Biden signed an executive order strengthening so-called Buy American laws, which require the federal government to secure goods and services from U.S. firms. He also signed an executive order to replace all government vehicles with U.S.-made electric vehicles by 2035.

Biden says that Trump has “taken a wrecking ball to our hemispheric ties,” pointing to his immigration policies and also to what Biden sees as a haphazard approach to the regional crisis in Venezuela, which has created more than three million refugees.

  • Biden told CFR that Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro is a “tyrant” who should step aside, and has called on world governments to recognize opposition leader Juan Guaido. 
  • He advocates for increased sanctions on the regime and its supporters, more aid to help both Venezuela and its neighbors deal with the refugee crisis, and negotiations over the release of political prisoners and new elections.
  • He criticizes Trump’s handling of the Venezuela crisis, charging that his administration’s efforts to support democracy there “have been undermined by politicization, faulty execution and clunky sloganeering.” 
  • He says that Trump’s “saber rattling” over potential U.S. military intervention in Venezuela has threatened the coalition that has been assembled to support Guaido, and he condemns the administration’s refusal to allow more Venezuelans refuge in the United States.
  • He points to his focus on Latin America as vice president. During his tenure, the Obama administration reopened diplomatic ties with Cuba, which the Trump administration then reversed, blaming Cuba for propping up Maduro’s regime in Venezuela. Obama also concluded trade deals with Colombia and Panama and negotiated a $750 million aid package for Central America.
This project was made possible in part by a grant from Carnegie Corporation of New York.
Last Updated: November 7, 2020