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May 4, 2022

NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)
What Is NATO?

The alliance is bolstering its military deterrent in Europe amid Russia’s invasion of Ukraine and could be poised for another major expansion.

The United Kingdom’s Royal Marines take part in NATO exercises in Scotland in 2018.

February 3, 2022

Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico: A U.S. Territory in Crisis

The Caribbean island, which shares a close yet fraught relationship with the rest of the United States, faces a multilayered economic and social crisis, rooted in long-standing policy and compounded …

A man rides his bicycle through a damaged road in Puerto Rico.

January 15, 2021

United States
A Unique Military Force: The U.S. National Guard

The National Guard is a special part of the U.S. military that answers to both state governors and the president. In some instances, how leaders have used the Guard has generated controversy, particu…

Members of the Connecticut National Guard survey flooded areas in Florida from a helicopter as part of the response to Hurricane Irma.

November 19, 2012

Development
Poland’s Economic Model

Poland has maintained economic growth despite the global financial crisis and eurozone woes, while asserting itself as a leading advocate for greater European integration.

Stock exchange figures are displayed above clocks with time from around the world at Warsaw Stock Exchange.

May 17, 2013

South Africa
South Africa’s Economic Fault Lines

South Africa in the post-apartheid period has registered steady growth, but mounting problems over inequality threaten the continent’s economic engine.

Girls stand outside shacks made from metal in Cape Town's Khayelitsha township.

February 6, 2013

Europe
Germany’s Central Bank and the Eurozone

Germany’s Bundesbank remains an influential actor in eurozone policymaking, and its recent disagreements with the ECB raise concerns about managing the zone’s debt crisis. This Backgrounder explains.

July 11, 2012

Financial Markets
The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision

Controversies over too-big-to-fail financial institutions continue to mount. The Basel Accords represent the latest effort to ease risk and restore confidence, as this Backgrounder explains.

June 13, 2012

Greece
Greek Elections and the Eurozone’s Future

Greek elections this weekend could render a verdict on the country’s eurozone future, with analysts fearing serious consequences for the global economy, says this CFR Backgrounder.

September 21, 2011

Middle East and North Africa
UN Resolutions on the Mideast and North Africa

Summaries and links to the seminal United Nations Security Council and General Assembly resolutions for the post-colonial period, focusing on those related to the Arab-Israeli conflict in the Middle …

October 31, 2012

United States
The Candidates on Democracy Promotion in the Arab World

The presidential candidates generally agree on support for democracy and human rights in Arab states, but have differed on several policy particulars, such as military intervention in Libya and Syria.