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June 2, 2010

Iran
Deterrence Misapplied

Overview Given the nature and structure of its government, is it possible to contain an Iran with nuclear weapons? In this discussion paper, sponsored by the Carnegie Corporation of New York, Fred…

August 8, 2018

NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)
NATO's Deterrence Problem: An Analog Strategy for a Digital Age

As cyberattacks increase in destructive potential and remain difficult to attribute, NATO faces a dilemma of whether and how to adapt their policy of strategic ambiguity to a new era of cyberwarfare…

The sign of the NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Center of Excellence in Tallinn, Estonia on November 29, 2017.

June 11, 2018

Cybersecurity
Not The Cyber Deterrence the United States Wants

The U.S. approach to cyber deterrence assumes that Washington will be deterring others. The Obama administration's response to Russian interference in the 2016 election tests that assumption. 

NYC Blackout

January 4, 2017

Cybersecurity
President Obama’s Pursuit of Cyber Deterrence Ends in Failure

The Obama administration responded to Russia’s cyber operations against Democratic National Committee officials last week. The punitive measures seek to deter Russia, and other adversaries, from cybe…

September 11, 2017

Israel
Israel and Hezbollah: Deterrence and the Threat of Miscalculation

Neither Israel nor Hezbollah may want to return to war, but the risk of conflict is real—especially in Syria. The Trump administration can take action to prevent unintended escalation.

May 19, 2015

Cybersecurity
Sanctioning Cyber Crime: The New Face of Deterrence

Zachary K. Goldman is the Executive Director of the Center on Law and Security at NYU School of Law. He formerly served in the Department of the Treasury’s Office of Terrorism and Financial Intellige…

CFR Net Politics Target Cyber Crime

March 25, 2015

Cybersecurity
Three Questions about Admiral Rogers’ Testimony on Cyber Deterrence

Last week, Admiral Mike Rogers, commander of U.S. Cyber Command, testified before the Senate Committee on Armed Services. Most of the media attention (see this, this, and this) has focused on Rogers’…

Michael Rogers Cyber NSA Net Politics CFR

January 11, 2012

China
A Chinese View on Why Cyber Deterrence Is So Hard

There has been a great deal of thinking and writing about why deterrence is difficult in cyberspace. Attacks can be masked, or routed through another country’s networks. Even if you know for sure the…

Hillary Clinton and Wang Qishan at S&ED

November 3, 2016

Defense and Security
Facebook Live: Denial of Service Attacks, Hacking U.S. Elections, and Deterrence in Cyberspace

Last week, I sat down with my colleague Adam Segal, CFR’s director of digital and cyberspace policy, to discuss the recent denial of service attacks on popular websites like Netflix and Twitter, the …

image-2016-10-27-1

September 21, 2018

Cybersecurity
Cyber Week in Review: September 21, 2018

This week: two U.S. cyber strategies, China self-censors, big tech not happy about data localization in India, and European antitrust regulators look into Amazon.

Nakasone