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June 2, 2010

Deterrence Misapplied

Overview Given the nature and structure of its government, is it possible to contain an Iran with nuclear weapons? In this discussion paper, sponsored by the Carnegie Corporation of New York, Fred…

Deterrence Misapplied header

August 8, 2018

NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)
NATO's Deterrence Problem: An Analog Strategy for a Digital Age

As cyberattacks increase in destructive potential and remain difficult to attribute, NATO faces a dilemma of whether and how to adapt their policy of strategic ambiguity to a new era of cyberwarfare…

The sign of the NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Center of Excellence in Tallinn, Estonia on November 29, 2017.

June 11, 2018

Not The Cyber Deterrence the United States Wants

The U.S. approach to cyber deterrence assumes that Washington will be deterring others. The Obama administration's response to Russian interference in the 2016 election tests that assumption. 

NYC Blackout

January 4, 2017

President Obama’s Pursuit of Cyber Deterrence Ends in Failure

The Obama administration responded to Russia’s cyber operations against Democratic National Committee officials last week. The punitive measures seek to deter Russia, and other adversaries, from cybe…

September 11, 2017

Israel and Hezbollah: Deterrence and the Threat of Miscalculation

Neither Israel nor Hezbollah may want to return to war, but the risk of conflict is real—especially in Syria. The Trump administration can take action to prevent unintended escalation.

Hezbollah fighters in Syria.

May 19, 2015

Sanctioning Cyber Crime: The New Face of Deterrence

Zachary K. Goldman is the Executive Director of the Center on Law and Security at NYU School of Law. He formerly served in the Department of the Treasury’s Office of Terrorism and Financial Intellige…

CFR Net Politics Target Cyber Crime

March 25, 2015

Three Questions about Admiral Rogers’ Testimony on Cyber Deterrence

Last week, Admiral Mike Rogers, commander of U.S. Cyber Command, testified before the Senate Committee on Armed Services. Most of the media attention (see this, this, and this) has focused on Rogers’…

Michael Rogers Cyber NSA Net Politics CFR

January 11, 2012

A Chinese View on Why Cyber Deterrence Is So Hard

There has been a great deal of thinking and writing about why deterrence is difficult in cyberspace. Attacks can be masked, or routed through another country’s networks. Even if you know for sure the…

Hillary Clinton and Wang Qishan at S&ED

September 22, 2008

United States
CFR Report Calls for New Nuclear Deterrence Strategy

"The rush to transform Cold War deterrence into a weapon against nuclear terrorism opens the door to a host of unintended yet dangerous consequences," warns a new Council Special Report, Deterring St…

November 3, 2016

Defense and Security
Facebook Live: Denial of Service Attacks, Hacking U.S. Elections, and Deterrence in Cyberspace

Last week, I sat down with my colleague Adam Segal, CFR’s director of digital and cyberspace policy, to discuss the recent denial of service attacks on popular websites like Netflix and Twitter, the …