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September 29, 2022

Central America
Climate Change and Regional Instability in Central America

To stave off climate-induced instability in Central America, national governments and regional and international organizations all have a role to play to develop both immediate crisis response and lo…

September 10, 2019

Climate Change
Impact of Climate Risk on the Energy System

Climate change poses risks to energy security, financial markets, and national security. Energy companies and local, state, and federal governments need to better prepare to face these challenges.

June 14, 2019

Energy and Environment
Climate Risk Impacts on the Energy System

Insights from a CFR workshop examining the financial, regulatory, security, and technological dimensions of climate risks to the U.S. energy system.

Hurricane Harvey off the coast of Texas as seen from the International Space Station, on August 25, 2017.

August 29, 2022

Mozambique
Stabilizing Mozambique

Mozambique faces a host of challenges, from escalating climate crises to an ongoing insurgency in the country's northeast, that the United States can help contain with funding from the Global Fragili…

A convoy of Rwandan soldiers drives by Mozambicans on a roadside.

June 14, 2010

Energy and Climate Policy
Energy Security

Overview What is energy security? On April 12–13, the Council on Foreign Relations convened academics, policymakers, and industry experts to assess the security implications of the way the world p…

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September 8, 2022

Haiti
A Smarter U.S. Assistance Strategy for Haiti

Implementing the Global Fragility Act in Haiti necessitates a change in U.S. assumptions and actions, writes Susan D. Page. The United States should work alongside Haitians desirous of charting their…

A woman runs past a burning barricade during a protest against growing fuel scarcity, soaring consumer prices, and crime in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, on August 29, 2022.

June 29, 2015

Energy and Climate Policy
Oil Prices, Low-Carbon Energy, and Climate Policy

Overview For decades, oil prices have influenced the outlook for alternatives to oil and policies that support those alternatives. Expensive oil makes substitutes more appealing; cheap oil makes t…

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March 8, 2019

Energy and Environment
The Tech-Enabled Energy Future

A new wave of energy innovation is remaking the transportation, electricity, and manufacturing sectors. This revolution is already creating uncertainty about the future energy landscape, lessening common interests between oil producing nations and the world’s largest economies.

NuTonomy’s driverless car, the first to launch in Boston, takes a spin around Drydock Avenue in South Boston, on January 4, 2017.

November 4, 2010

Energy and Climate Policy
Energy Innovation

Overview Low-carbon technology innovation and diffusion are both essential aspects of an effective response to climate change. Studying China, India, and Brazil, Michael A. Levi, Elizabeth C. Econ…

July 2, 2019

Global Governance
Reevaluating Global Trade Governance Structures to Address Climate Change

Climate change is imperiling humanity’s future. To combat it, the world needs to use rules that have been around for decades, create new rules, and find new space for climate change policy.

A sorting machine at a recycling site in Edinburgh, Scotland, on April 17, 2019