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November 20, 2015

Fossil Fuels
Fiscal Breakeven Oil Prices

Introduction An oil-exporting country’s “fiscal breakeven” oil price is the minimum price per barrel that the country needs in order to meet its expected spending needs while balancing its budget …

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November 15, 2012

Grand Strategy
Democratic Internationalism

Overview In this International Institutions and Global Governance Working Paper, Daniel Deudney and G. John Ikenberry trace the history of liberal internationalism and find that the existing U.S. …

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July 7, 2008

Food and Water Security
Food Price Inflation

Overview Increases in the prices for major food crops that are traded globally have reached extraordinary levels, sparking riots in some countries and becoming the focus of widespread debate and p…

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December 18, 2019

Conflict Prevention
Conflicts to Watch in 2020

In CFR’s annual Preventive Priorities Survey, U.S. foreign policy experts assess the likelihood and impact of thirty potential conflicts that could emerge or escalate in the coming year.

A woman covers her face as she stands on the outskirts of a town near the Syria-Turkey border, while smoke plumes meant to decrease visibility for Turkish warplanes billow from tire fires.

July 11, 2017

Energy and Environment
Interactive: Oil Exporters' External Breakeven Prices

The 2014 fall in global oil prices, from over $100 a barrel to around $50 a barrel, reduced the export proceeds of the world’s main oil- and gas-exporting economies by about $1 trillion. After a deca…

December 11, 2014

Fossil Fuels
Spillovers From Falling Oil Prices

Overview U.S. policymakers who worry about the impact of energy developments on geopolitics typically think of high oil prices as bad news and low prices as an unalloyed good. But a sustained drop…

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June 13, 2016

Fossil Fuels
Oil Price Volatility: Causes, Effects, and Policy Implications

CFR convened a workshop to explore what drives oil price volatility, what effects it has on the economy and geopolitics, and what policy options to reduce price volatility.

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March 9, 2016

Food and Water Security
Anticipating and Avoiding Global Food Price Crises

Overview Global food prices have spiked several times in recent years, most notably in 2007–2008 and again in 2010–2011. A sharp increase in food prices, especially in staple grains such as corn, …

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October 29, 2015

Fossil Fuels
Automobile Fuel Economy Standards in a Lower-Oil-Price World

Overview Corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards, which require automakers to achieve government-mandated targets for the efficiency of the vehicles they sell each year, can reduce U.S. re…

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July 11, 2017

Fossil Fuels
Using External Breakeven Prices to Track Vulnerabilities in Oil-Exporting Countries

The best single measure of the resilience of an oil- or gas-exporting economy in the face of swings in the global oil price is its external breakeven price: the oil price that covers its import bill…

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