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July 27, 2022

North Korea
What to Know About Sanctions on North Korea

World powers continue to punish North Korea with economic sanctions, but the pressure has so far failed to push Pyongyang toward denuclearization.

A woman works at a textile mill in Pyongyang, North Korea.

December 19, 2011

Nonproliferation, Arms Control, and Disarmament
North Korea After Kim

Kim Jong-il’s death has prompted discussion about the future of the isolated country and its nuclear weapons program. Experts cited in this CFR Backgrounder believe a post-Kim regime in North Korea w…

June 28, 2022

North Korea
North Korea’s Military Capabilities

Kim Jong-un has accelerated North Korea’s buildup of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction, while also modernizing its large conventional force.

Vehicles carry missiles during a military parade in Pyongyang.

June 17, 2020

North Korea
North Korea’s Power Structure

In North Korea, all authority flows from Supreme Leader Kim Jong-un. He has reinstated the party as the central hub to consolidate his power and bring elites to heel.

Pedestrians walk past portraits of Kim Il-sung and Kim Jong-il.

June 25, 2019

China
The China–North Korea Relationship

China is North Korea’s biggest trade partner and has leverage over Kim Jong-un’s regime, yet its policies focus more on border stability than nuclear threat.

Xi Jinping and Kim Jong-un wear black suits, stand out the sunroof of a car, and wave to people in Pyongyang, North Korea.

June 30, 2021

Sub-Saharan Africa
Africa’s ‘Leaders for Life’

Sub-Saharan Africa is home to many of the world’s longest-ruling heads of state. Pro-democracy advocates have at times successfully stopped presidents from extending their mandates, but the authorita…

A worker throws away campaign posters of President Yoweri Museveni after Uganda’s 2021 election.

November 4, 2021

Japan
The U.S.-Japan Security Alliance

The alliance with Japan has been the cornerstone of U.S. security policy in East Asia for decades. Now, Japan’s role in global security is growing as challenges from China and North Korea mount.

Former U.S. Defense Secretary Leon Panetta addresses U.S. and Japanese forces at Yokota Air Base outside of Tokyo, October 24, 2011.

June 7, 2006

North Korea
North Korea’s Capitalist Experiment

The government of North Korean President Kim Jung-Il retains a virtual death grip on the nation’s economy, directing all official economic activity through an authoritarian command system. But recent…

April 9, 2019

International Organizations
The World Bank Group’s Role in Global Development

Since its founding in 1944, the World Bank has evolved from a lender focused on European reconstruction to the preeminent international institution for economic development and poverty reduction.

KM Asad/NurPhoto via Getty Images

August 8, 2018

Nigeria
Nigeria’s Battle With Boko Haram

Boko Haram, known for mass kidnappings, bombings, and other acts of terrorism, remains an enduring threat to northern Nigeria and the Lake Chad Basin.

A girl watches other children on a merry-go-round in an abandoned amusement park in Maiduguri, Nigeria.