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September 28, 2021

United Nations
The Role of the UN General Assembly

The UN General Assembly hosts a much-watched debate of world leaders each year but has struggled to make its work more substantive. After an unprecedented all-virtual assembly in 2020, this year’s me…

A wide shot of the UN General Assembly Chamber as President Biden speaks.

September 23, 2021

Climate Change
Global Climate Agreements: Successes and Failures

International efforts, such as the Paris Agreement, aim to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. But experts say countries aren’t doing enough to limit dangerous global warming.

Muddy waters nearly submerge lines of cars during a flood in Colorado, United States.

February 2, 2005

Iraq
Iraq: The war’s price tag

This publication is now archived. How much has the war in Iraq cost?Congress has so far appropriated about $123 billion for the war in Iraq in addition to the military’s standard operating expenses c…

July 11, 2007

Wars and Conflict
What Model Should Iraq Follow after U.S. Forces Withdraw?

Experts point to a number of postwar models, from Bosnia to Vietnam to South Korea, for Iraq to follow once U.S. forces leave.

September 16, 2005

Wars and Conflict
IRAQ: Is there Civil War in Iraq?

This publication is now archived. IntroductionBack in July, John Burns of the New York Times posed a provocative question: If there’s civil war in Iraq, how will we know it? The answer may be unclear…

October 27, 2010

Afghanistan
Foreign Policy and the 2010 Midterms: War in Afghanistan

The war in Afghanistan hasn’t been a major campaign issue even as public support for it has waned. This Backgrounder examines political backing for the war.

February 16, 2005

Iraq
IRAQ: Insurgency Flare-up

This publication is now archived. Why has the Iraqi insurgency flared up again?It was never completely stamped out, experts say, and Sunni and Shiite insurgents have used anti-U.S. sentiment and disc…

September 12, 2007

Iraq
Iraq Security Statistics

The U.S. military’s methodology for measuring violence in Iraq draws criticism from some quarters. The Pentagon concedes some kinds of violence don’t get included, but insists its consistent applic…

October 17, 2007

Democracy
Plans for Iraq’s Future: Federalism, Separatism, and Partition

A Senate proposal calling for the restructuring of Iraq’s government has drawn fire from Iraqis who liken it to partition. Amid the criticism have emerged other controversial options.

January 27, 2005

Iraq
IRAQ: Quelling the Insurgency

This publication is now archived. What is the plan to quell Iraq’s Sunni insurgency?U.S. officials say that they are developing a strategy with the Iraqi Interim Government (IIG) to take control of c…