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September 7, 2022

United Nations
The Role of the UN General Assembly

The UN General Assembly hosts a much-watched debate of world leaders each year but has struggled to make its work more substantive.

A wide shot of the UN General Assembly Chamber as President Biden speaks.

August 22, 2022

Infectious Diseases
Why Hasn’t the World Eradicated Polio?

The world is inching closer to eradicating polio, but armed conflicts and opposition to vaccines stand in the way of finally eliminating the disease.

A health worker marks the finger of a child with indelible ink during an anti-polio campaign at an Afghan refugee settlement on the outskirts of Islamabad, Pakistan.

July 19, 2022

Pharmaceuticals and Vaccines
A Guide to Global COVID-19 Vaccine Efforts

The swift development of effective vaccines against COVID-19 was an unprecedented scientific achievement. But production challenges, vaccine nationalism, and new variants have all presented hurdles.

Physician Alister Martin receives one of the first doses of the Pfizer-BioNTech coronavirus disease (COVID-19) vaccine at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts, U.S., December 16, 2020.Craig F. Walker

May 19, 2022

Hong Kong
Hong Kong’s Freedoms: What China Promised and How It’s Cracking Down

Beijing has tightened its grip on Hong Kong in recent years, dimming hopes that the financial center will ever become a full democracy.

Hong Kong police force a man's arms behind his back, as an officer stands close to the camera, in Hong Kong.

March 18, 2022

Sub-Saharan Africa
AGOA: The U.S.-Africa Trade Program

AGOA is the cornerstone of the U.S.-Africa trade relationship, but declining support has called the program’s value into question.

A worker wearing a dust mask sews at an export processing zone factory in Athi River, Kenya.

February 2, 2005

Iraq
Iraq: The war’s price tag

This publication is now archived. How much has the war in Iraq cost?Congress has so far appropriated about $123 billion for the war in Iraq in addition to the military’s standard operating expenses c…

July 11, 2007

Wars and Conflict
What Model Should Iraq Follow after U.S. Forces Withdraw?

Experts point to a number of postwar models, from Bosnia to Vietnam to South Korea, for Iraq to follow once U.S. forces leave.

September 16, 2005

Wars and Conflict
IRAQ: Is there Civil War in Iraq?

This publication is now archived. IntroductionBack in July, John Burns of the New York Times posed a provocative question: If there’s civil war in Iraq, how will we know it? The answer may be unclear…

October 27, 2010

Afghanistan
Foreign Policy and the 2010 Midterms: War in Afghanistan

The war in Afghanistan hasn’t been a major campaign issue even as public support for it has waned. This Backgrounder examines political backing for the war.

February 16, 2005

Iraq
IRAQ: Insurgency Flare-up

This publication is now archived. Why has the Iraqi insurgency flared up again?It was never completely stamped out, experts say, and Sunni and Shiite insurgents have used anti-U.S. sentiment and disc…