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November 16, 2020

North Korea
North Korea’s Military Capabilities

Kim Jong-un has accelerated North Korea’s buildup of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction, while also modernizing its large conventional force.

Vehicles carry missiles during a military parade in Pyongyang.

May 6, 2021

NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

The alliance is bringing its twenty-year mission in Afghanistan to a close in 2021, as it looks to bolster its military deterrent in Europe and provide security assistance in the Middle East and Horn…

Nato

June 17, 2020

North Korea
North Korea’s Power Structure

In North Korea, all authority flows from Supreme Leader Kim Jong-un. He has reinstated the party as the central hub to consolidate his power and bring elites to heel.

Pedestrians walk past portraits of Kim Il-sung and Kim Jong-il.

June 25, 2019

China
The China–North Korea Relationship

China is North Korea’s biggest trade partner and has leverage over Kim Jong-un’s regime, yet its policies focus more on border stability than nuclear threat.

Xi Jinping and Kim Jong-un wear black suits, stand out the sunroof of a car, and wave to people in Pyongyang, North Korea.

July 16, 2019

North Korea
What to Know About Sanctions on North Korea

Kim Jong-un hopes a summit with President Trump will lead to sanctions relief, while experts disagree over whether increased pressure would push Pyongyang toward denuclearization.

A woman works at a textile mill in Pyongyang, North Korea.

September 20, 2021

Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP)
What’s Next for the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP)?

Though President Trump withdrew from the TPP, the remaining members of the trade pact have forged ahead with a new version, leaving the U.S. role in the Asia-Pacific in question.

Remaining members of the TPP gather at the signing agreement ceremony in Santiago, Chile, in March 2018.

September 23, 2021

Technology and Innovation
Cryptocurrencies, Digital Dollars, and the Future of Money

The dizzying rise of Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies has created new challenges for governments and central banks. Some are responding by introducing their own digital currencies.

A technician inspects the backside of a bitcoin mining operation in Quebec, Canada.

October 31, 2012

Elections and Voting
The Candidates on North Korea

President Obama has expanded sanctions against North Korea over its nuclear ambitions while making attempts to engage with it, but Mitt Romney has criticized the engagement policy as weak.

August 29, 2017

North Korea
Can Ballistic Missile Defense Shield Guam From North Korea?

Attempts by the United States and Japan to intercept North Korean ballistic missiles headed toward Guam could fail and undermine the credibility of missile defense.

U.S. Navy

December 19, 2011

Nonproliferation, Arms Control, and Disarmament
North Korea After Kim

Kim Jong-il’s death has prompted discussion about the future of the isolated country and its nuclear weapons program. Experts cited in this CFR Backgrounder believe a post-Kim regime in North Korea w…