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March 13, 2019

China
The China–North Korea Relationship

China is North Korea’s biggest trade partner and has leverage over Kim Jong-un’s regime, yet its policies focus more on border stability than nuclear threat.

North Korean leader Kim Jong-un meets with China’s Xi Jinping in Beijing.

February 25, 2019

North Korea
What to Know About Sanctions on North Korea

Kim Jong-un hopes a summit with President Trump will lead to sanctions relief, while experts disagree over whether increased pressure would push Pyongyang toward denuclearization.

A woman works at a textile mill in Pyongyang, North Korea.

July 19, 2018

North Korea
North Korea’s Power Structure

In North Korea, all authority flows from Supreme Leader Kim Jong-un. He has reinstated the party as the central hub to consolidate his power and bring elites to heel.

Pedestrians walk past portraits of Kim Il-sung and Kim Jong-il.

June 6, 2018

North Korea
North Korea’s Military Capabilities

Kim Jong-un has accelerated North Korea’s buildup of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction, while also modernizing its large conventional force.

Vehicles carry missiles during a military parade in Pyongyang.

April 2, 2019

NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization)
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

NATO is girding up for what some believe is a new Cold War with Russia, but President Trump’s criticism of longtime allies has unsettled the twenty-nine-member bloc.

Nato

May 16, 2019

Trade
The Truth About Tariffs

Tariffs have been applied over the years to protect homegrown industries and target competitors who are seen as using unfair trade practices. They impose costs on both importers and exporters and had been in decline until the recent U.S.-China trade war.

A steelworker tests a sample of steel at an Indiana mill in March 2018.

May 13, 2019

China
Is ‘Made in China 2025’ a Threat to Global Trade?

China’s industrial policy is aimed at rapidly expanding its high-tech sectors and developing its advanced manufacturing base. The plan is seen as a threat by President Trump, and could escalate the trade war.

Microchip production in China

May 1, 2019

Energy and Climate Policy
Envisioning a Green New Deal: A Global Comparison

The Green New Deal has motivated those who want the United States to undertake unprecedented climate action, but it has also drawn backlash. How is the rest of the world grappling with decarbonizatio…

Monika Skolimowska/picture alliance via Getty Images

December 19, 2011

Nonproliferation, Arms Control, and Disarmament
North Korea After Kim

Kim Jong-il’s death has prompted discussion about the future of the isolated country and its nuclear weapons program. Experts cited in this CFR Backgrounder believe a post-Kim regime in North Korea w…

April 11, 2019

International Law
What Is Extradition?

The extradition process enables governments to bring fugitives abroad to justice, but it can be fraught with political tension, even when a treaty is in place.

Julian Assange arrest and extradition