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June 1, 2017

Development
Building Inclusive Economies

Given the strong evidence of the returns on women’s economic inclusion, this issue merits a higher place on the U.S. economic and foreign policy agenda. The Donald J. Trump administration should build on recent reforms to promote inclusive economies and launch an effort to address legal barriers to women’s economic participation; increase access to capital, especially among small- and medium-sized enterprises; catalyze investment in women; promote technology and innovation; and support research and data collection in this area.

July 5, 2016

Technology and Innovation
Women in Tech as a Driver for Growth in Emerging Economies

Overview As the world transitions to an increasingly digital economy, many low- and middle-income countries face an obstacle: most emerging economies lack qualified people to fill critical informa…

March 14, 2011

Labor and Employment
The Evolving Structure of the American Economy and the Employment Challenge

Overview This Working Paper by Nobel Laureate Michael Spence and Sandile Hlatshwayo is a detailed examination of the changing shape of the American economy and the effect of these changes on the l…

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October 29, 2015

Fossil Fuels
Automobile Fuel Economy Standards in a Lower-Oil-Price World

Overview Corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards, which require automakers to achieve government-mandated targets for the efficiency of the vehicles they sell each year, can reduce U.S. re…

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December 1, 1999

Emerging Markets
Building the Financial Infrastructure for Middle Class Emerging Economies

Overview The export-led growth model for emerging economies is driven by their need to service external debt and build foreign exchange reserves. It has foundered in the aftermath of financial cri…

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October 20, 2009

Economic Crises
Global Imbalances, National Rebalancing, and the Political Economy of Recovery

Overview Global macroeconomic imbalances—massive borrowing by some countries and massive lending by others—drove the financial boom and bubble that eventually burst into the current crisis. These …

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June 10, 1999

Financial Markets
Private Capital Flows, Emerging Economies, and International Financial Architecture

Overview Firms and development strategies based on a rear-view mirror view will leave companies, projects, and entrepreneurs scrambling for capital access. The control of capital in the developed …

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July 20, 2022

China
China’s Collapsing Global Image

China’s global image has deteriorated significantly in the past four years, alienating leading democracies and developing countries alike with aggressive foreign policy, economic coercion, and faltering soft power policies.

January 1, 1997

China
Shaping U.S.-China Relations

Overview The rise of China in world affairs is a major feature of our era. An increasingly contentious debate has erupted in the United States over how to respond to this development. Figuring out…

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November 4, 2010

Energy and Climate Policy
Energy Innovation

Overview Low-carbon technology innovation and diffusion are both essential aspects of an effective response to climate change. Studying China, India, and Brazil, Michael A. Levi, Elizabeth C. Econ…