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October 28, 2022

Wars and Conflict
Nonstate Warfare: The Military Methods of Guerillas, Warlords, and Militias

Teaching Notes for Toxic Politics, authored by CFR Senior Fellow Yanzhong Huang, discuss how China’s environmental crisis is undermining public health and becoming an Achilles heel in its reemergence as a global power.

Nonstate Warfare Teaching Notes Image

April 11, 2022

Nigeria
Nigeria’s Deepening Security Crisis Exposes Growing Reliance on Nonstate Actors

A rare positive note as Nigeria spirals into a state of lawlessness is the unintended return to the front burner of longstanding issues around governance at the subnational level. Until now, such issues have bubbled under the surface, receiving fleeting attention only when the country’s perennial crisis threatens to boil over, only to subside as soon as a temporary fix is found. Penultimate week, after still unidentified assailants opened fire on an Abuja-Kaduna train, killing eight passengers and kidnapping tens of others for ransom, Kaduna State Governor Nasir El-Rufai, emerging from a private meeting with President Muhammadu Buhari, threatened to do whatever it takes to protect lives and property across the state, including “importing mercenaries from outside the country to do it.”

Nigerian police officer sitting down being interviewed wearing police outfit.

March 24, 2022

Cybersecurity
Tracking Cyber Operations and Actors in the Russia-Ukraine War

The Russian invasion of Ukraine has been characterized by a relative lack of major cyber operations. This article provides an accounting of those which have taken place.

Ukrainian airborne troops stand in formation during drills in November 2021.

July 26, 2022

Wars and Conflict
Nonstate Warfare

Stephen Biddle explains how nonstate military strategies overturn traditional perspectives on warfare.

November 8, 2022

Nuclear Weapons
Religion and Foreign Policy Webinar: The Future of Nuclear Weapons

Steven K. Pifer, affiliate of Stanford University’s Center for International Security and Cooperation, and Susan Brooks Thistlethwaite, professor of theology emerita and president emerita at Chicago …

Play The Future of Nuclear Weapons

January 28, 2021

Transition 2021
Countering Violent Extremism: Three Moves Biden Should Make Now

The United States should implement a broad-based strategy to counter the growing threat of violent extremism at home and abroad. Here are three items the Biden administration can focus on.

March 18, 2021

Southeast Asia
As Myanmar’s Turmoil Gets Worse, External Actors Should Prepare for Refugee Flows

The situation on the ground in Myanmar continues to deteriorate. In the initial days after the February 1 military coup, the junta seemed somewhat reluctant to use brutal force to disperse demonstrat…

Anti-coup protesters stand at a barricade as they clash with security forces on Bayint Naung Bridge in Mayangone, Yangon, Myanmar, on March 16, 2021.

November 9, 2022

Cybersecurity
New Entries in the CFR Cyber Operations Tracker: Q3 2022

An update of the Council on Foreign Relations' Cyber Operations Tracker for the period between July and September 2022.

Cyber Operations Tracker graphic

July 23, 2020

Nigeria
Not All Violent Problems Require Violent Solutions: Banditry in Nigeria’s North-West

For more than two years, northwestern Nigeria has faced devastating attacks from armed bandits, particularly in the states of Zamfara, Katsina, Kaduna, Niger, and Sokoto. But violent military operations are half-baked peace plans are not the answer.

A young man in a white tunic robe carries handmade guns. He is flanked by a soldier in camouflage fatigues and a rifle.

December 5, 2019

China
Blurred Lines Between State and Non-State Actors

Since at least 2013, APT17 has been responsible for a number of network intrusions against U.S. and Southeast Asian targets. While evidence links APT17's activities to the Chinese government, there a…

A Chinese national flag flies in front of Google China's headquarters in Beijing