About the Expert

Expert Bio

Michael C. Horowitz is senior fellow for defense technology and innovation at the Council on Foreign Relations. He is also director of Perry World House, Richard Perry professor, and professor of political science at the University of Pennsylvania.

Horowitz previously worked for the office of the undersecretary of defense for policy in the department of defense. He is the author of The Diffusion of Military Power: Causes and Consequences for International Politics, and the co-author of Why Leaders Fight. He won the Karl Deutsch Award given by the International Studies Association for early career contributions to the fields of international relations and peace research. He has published in a wide array of peer reviewed journals and popular outlets.

His interests include the intersection of emerging technologies such as artificial intelligence and robotics with global politics, military innovation, the role of leaders in international politics, and geopolitical forecasting methodology. He is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations. Horowitz received his PhD in government from Harvard University and his BA in political science from Emory University.