A threat actor believed to be Iran that targets private-sector and government entities for the purpose of espionage. In October 2019, revealed to have been compromised by Turla. Some operations previously attributed to the group may be Turla false flags.
Suspected victims
  • Israel
  • Kuwait
  • United States
  • Turkey
  • Saudi Arabia
  • Qatar
  • Lebanon
Suspected state sponsor
  • Iran (Islamic Republic of)
Type of incident
  • Espionage
Target category
  • Government
  • Private sector
  • Civil society