Surveillance of individuals in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and globally
Date of report
  • December 2019
  • Government of the UAE
ToTok, a popular Emirati messaging app, was revealed to be a mass surveillance tool used by the Emirati government.
Suspected victims
  • Millions of individuals in the UAE and globally
Suspected state sponsor
  • United Arab Emirates
Type of incident
  • Espionage
Target category
  • Civil society