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May 26, 2005

Europe
EUROPEAN UNION: The French Referendum

This publication is now archived. What is at stake in France’s vote on the EU constitution?A great deal. Most experts say if France votes "no" on the European Union constitution in its May 29 referen…

April 6, 2006

Italy
Italy Election Preview

Italians will head to the polls for parliamentary elections on April 9 and 10 to determine whether Italy’s Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi or challenger Romano Prodi and his center-left coalition wi…

May 12, 2006

Bolivia
Bolivia’s Nationalization of Oil and Gas

In a region seen as turning leftward, forging alliances would seem a natural course of events. But Bolivian President Evo Morales’ decision to nationalize the oil and gas industry is exposing tension…

August 14, 2006

United States
Hugo Chavez’s World Tour

In a recent world tour—stops included Belarus, Russia, and Iran—Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez attempted to expand his influence beyond Latin America and capitalize on the leverage afforded by his …

March 7, 2008

China
China’s Slow Road to Democracy

China is dealing with growing signs of social unrest and a budding civil society, but the central government’s power grip leaves little room for democracy.

December 23, 2008

Iraq
U.S. Security Agreements and Iraq

Iraqi lawmakers approved new ground rules for the U.S. troop presence, including a U.S. withdrawal by 2011. But questions about the accords’ legal longevity remain.

September 1, 2009

Sub-Saharan Africa
The African Union

The African Union succeeded the old Organization for African Unity (OAU) in 2002. Since then, the new institution has struggled to reform governing bodies inherited from the OAU while shouldering cha…

June 24, 2010

International Organizations
The G20’s Twenty Agendas

The G20 meetings in Toronto will be marked by competing agendas on global growth and financial regulations. This Backgrounder looks at the range of policy concerns.

September 21, 2011

Middle East and North Africa
UN Resolutions on the Mideast and North Africa

Summaries and links to the seminal United Nations Security Council and General Assembly resolutions for the post-colonial period, focusing on those related to the Arab-Israeli conflict in the Middle …

December 19, 2011

Nonproliferation, Arms Control, and Disarmament
North Korea After Kim

Kim Jong-il’s death has prompted discussion about the future of the isolated country and its nuclear weapons program. Experts cited in this CFR Backgrounder believe a post-Kim regime in North Korea w…