Man holding Kurdish flag.
Timeline

The Kurds’ Quest for Independence

1920 – 2019

The Kurds are one of the world’s largest peoples without a state, making up sizable minorities in Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Turkey. Their century-old quest for independence is marked by marginalization and persecution.

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Representatives from France, Germany, and the United Kingdom meet at the Lausanne Conference of 1932 to discuss suspending reparations imposed on countries defeated in World War I.
Representatives from France, Germany, and the United Kingdom meet at the Lausanne Conference of 1932 to discuss suspending reparations imposed on countries defeated in World War I. dpa/picture-alliance/AP
Middle East Reconfigured After WWI

The 1916 Sykes-Picot agreement divides the Middle East into British and French zones of influence and delineates the borders of the modern Middle East. Following World War I, the Treaty of Sevres [PDF], signed in 1920, dissolves the Ottoman Empire and proposes the creation of an autonomous Kurdish state. Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, Turkey’s new leader, rejects Sevres. It is replaced in 1923 by the Treaty of Lausanne, negotiated with the new Turkish government, which omits any reference to a Kurdish homeland. The Kurds, inhabiting previously Ottoman territories, are dispersed across the newly demarcated borders of Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Turkey, and repeatedly revolt against the respective authorities.

Qazi Muhammad is elected president of the Kurdish Democratic Party in Mahabad, Iran, in 1946.
Qazi Muhammad is elected president of the Kurdish Democratic Party in Mahabad, Iran, in 1946. Archives Eagleton/Kurdistan Photolibrary
Iranian Kurds Establish Republic of Mahabad

Kurds establish the Republic of Mahabad, a short-lived, independently governed state in Kurd-inhabited territories of Iran that came under Soviet control during World War II. Iran reoccupies Mahabad after the Soviet withdrawal in December 1946.

Mustafa Barzani with soldiers from the autonomous Republic of Mahabad in 1946.
Mustafa Barzani with soldiers from the autonomous Republic of Mahabad in 1946. Chris Kutschera/Kurdistan Photolibrary
Barzani Founds Kurdish Party in Iraq

Mustafa Barzani, considered the father of Kurdish nationalism, creates the Kurdish Democratic Party of Iraq while in exile in the Republic of Mahabad. Later renamed the Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP), it was the only Kurdish party in Iraq until the 1970s. It remains the dominant Kurdish party.

People examine the aftermath of a napalm attack on a mosque in the Kurdish-inhabited city of Barzan, Iraq, in 1961.
People examine the aftermath of a napalm attack on a mosque in the Kurdish-inhabited city of Barzan, Iraq, in 1961. Archives Sheikh Adham/Kurdistan Photolibrary
Iraqi Kurds Rebel

Following unfulfilled promises of autonomy under the rule of Iraqi Prime Minister Abd al-Karim Qasim, Barzani launches a Kurdish rebellion. It continues throughout the decade against successive Iraqi regimes. Iraq’s Baath party, a regional branch of the pan-Arabist socialist movement, comes into power in 1968. In March 1970, the Baathist government details plans for Kurdish autonomy. They are not implemented, and fighting resumes in 1974.

A Syrian refugee shows his "maktoumeen" card, which confers no rights or status and was issued to unregistered stateless Kurds.
A Syrian refugee shows his “maktoumeen” card, which confers no rights or status and was issued to unregistered stateless Kurds. UNHCR
Syria Strips 120,000 Kurds of Citizenship

In a census of Syria’s Al-Hasakah Governorate, Kurds who cannot prove their residence in Syria prior to 1945 and those who fail to participate are stripped of their citizenship, rendering them stateless and unable to travel. These Kurds and their descendants are unable to vote, own property or businesses, or legally marry. In April 2011, amid an intensifying uprising, President Bashar al-Assad promises some “unregistered” Kurds citizenship.

Syrian President Hafez al-Assad waves as he walks out of the Omayyades mosque in Damascus in October 1973.
Syrian President Hafez al-Assad waves as he walks out of the Omayyades mosque in Damascus in October 1973. Getty/Agence France Presse
‘Arab Belt’ Established in Syria’s Northeast

Syrian leader Hafez al-Assad establishes a so-called Arab belt along the border with Turkey, displacing Syrian Kurds. The move is designed to weaken Kurdish dominance of resource-rich areas. Assad, a Baathist, seized power in 1970, seven years after the party came to power in a coup.

Abdullah Ocalan, founder of the PKK, inspects guerrilla forces in 1978.
Abdullah Ocalan, founder of the PKK, inspects guerrilla forces in 1978. Getty/Bonn-Sequenz/Ullstein Bild
PKK Founded

Abdullah Ocalan founds the Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK) as a Marxist organization with the aim of establishing an independent Kurdistan in Turkey’s southeast. Though initially not taken seriously, the PKK steadily gains adherents among disenfranchised Kurds. A military coup takes place in Turkey in 1980, and the PKK leadership flees to Syria. In 1984, the organization begins to use violence against the state and terrorist tactics, and the United States designates it as a terrorist organization in 1997. An estimated forty thousand people have been killed in the Turkish-Kurdish conflict to date, though experts say the overall toll is difficult to determine. Kurds have made up the overwhelming majority of victims.

Kurdish rebels with heavy artillery.
Kurdish fighters are seen in Rawanduz, Iraq, in September 1974. Michel Artault/Gamma-Rapho/Getty Images
Baathists Arabize Northern Iraq

With the collapse of an autonomy agreement in 1974, Iraq’s Baathist regime, seeking to consolidate government control over the oil-rich regions in the country’s north, displaces hundreds of thousands of Kurdish inhabitants of the area and replaces them with Arabs from central and southern Iraq. Iraqi Kurds, supported by Iran and the United States, revolt against the Baathist regime.

Iranian Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Algerian President Houari Boumediene, and Vice Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council Saddam Hussein talk on March 3, 1975, in Algiers, Algeria.
Iranian Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Algerian President Houari Boumediene, and Vice Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council Saddam Hussein talk on March 3, 1975, in Algiers, Algeria. AP
Iraq, Iran Sign Algiers Accord

In Algiers, Iraq’s Saddam Hussein recognizes Iranian sovereignty [PDF] over half of the Shatt al-Arab estuary in exchange for Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi’s commitment to stop assisting Iraqi Kurds. The United States, which has been providing money and arms to Iraqi Kurds since 1972 at Iran’s request, withdraws its support for the Kurds. The Kurdish rebellion collapses soon after.

Jalal Talabani, seen here in 1979, is the founder of the PUK.
Jalal Talabani, seen here in 1979, is the founder of the PUK. Corbis/Christian Simonpietri
PUK Founded

Divisions among Iraqi Kurds emerge after the rebellion’s collapse. Denouncing Barzani as reactionary, Jalal Talabani splinters from the KDP to establish the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK). Political allegiances largely follow the fault lines between the two major Kurdish dialects, as the PUK establishes its stronghold in the Sorani-speaking regions of central Iraq and the KDP maintains its center of activity in the northern, Kurmanji-speaking districts.

Mustafa Barzani and his son, Masoud Barzani, cross the Iranian border into Iraq in July 1979.
Mustafa Barzani and his son, Masoud Barzani, cross the Iranian border into Iraq in July 1979. AP
Barzani’s Son Inherits KDP Leadership

Masoud Barzani takes on the presidency of the Kurdistan Democratic Party of Iraq after the death of his father, Mustafa. Barzani has been reelected as KDP president at every subsequent party congress to date. In 2005, he is elected president of the semiautonomous Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG).

Eleven people are executed in Iran on August 27, 1979, after a trial on charges of being "counterrevolutionary." Nine of the eleven people were Kurdish.
Eleven people are executed in Iran in August 1979, on charges of being “counterrevolutionary.” Nine of the people were Kurdish. Jahangir Razmi/Magnum
Kurds Rebel Following Iran’s Islamic Revolution

Hoping to achieve greater autonomy under Ayatollah Khomeini, Kurds are initially supportive of the January 1979 Islamic Revolution, but they rebel against the new regime [PDF] when their demands go unmet. Khomeini declares a holy war against the Kurds on August 18. A military campaign to exert control over Kurdish regions results in hundreds of deaths, systematic arrests, and the banning of the Kurdistan Democratic Party of Iran (KDPI).

Iranian troops advance on an Iraqi-held position in the Majnoon Islands on March 10, 1984, as Iraqi armored vehicles burn in the background.
Iranian troops advance on an Iraqi-held position in the Majnoon Islands on March 10, 1984. AP
Kurds Take Up Arms in Iran-Iraq War

Saddam Hussein enlists and arms Iranian Kurds, while Iraqi Kurds once again rebel against Baghdad  with Iranian support. Both governments view their Kurdish populations as collaborating with the enemy and retaliate against civilians, destroying villages and carrying out summary executions. These cross-border alliances also deepen divisions and spur clashes between Iranian and Iraqi Kurds.

A father and an infant lay dead on the street. Both were killed in a chemical attack carried out by Saddam Hussein on the city of Halabja, in northeastern Iraq, in March 1988.
A father and an infant are killed in a chemical attack carried out by Saddam Hussein on Halabja, in northeastern Iraq, in March 1988. IRNA/AFP/Getty Images
Tens of Thousands Iraqi Kurds Killed in Genocide

From February to September, Saddam Hussein carries out the al-Anfal (“the spoils”) campaign, known as the Kurdish Genocide, which includes mass killings, the destruction of thousands of villages, and the use of chemical weapons against civilians. An estimated 50,000 to 180,000 Iraqi Kurds are killed and tens of thousands displaced. On March 16, as many as five thousand Kurds are killed in a sarin and mustard-gas attack on the town of Halabja.

Map showing no fly zone over Kurdistan.
MAP: This image shows a no-fly zone set up over Iraqi Kurdistan in the north. Full image here. globalsecurity.org
No-Fly Zone Enforced Over Iraqi Kurdistan

After Iraqi forces are defeated by U.S.-led forces and leave Kuwait, Saddam Hussein cracks down on rebelling Iraqi Kurds. More than one million Kurds flee to Turkey and Iran and hundreds of thousands of others are internally displaced, triggering a humanitarian catastrophe. In response, a U.S.-led coalition carries out Operation Provide Comfort and the subsequent Operation Northern Watch, supplying humanitarian aid and enforcing a no-fly zone over Iraqi Kurdistan, allowing the Kurds to return. With the erosion of the central government’s hold on the north, Iraqi Kurds gain de facto autonomy. They elect the first Kurdistan Regional Government and National Assembly in 1992.

A KDP fighter fires on PUK-held positions southeast of Erbil on September 5, 1996.
A KDP fighter fires on PUK-held positions southeast of Erbil on September 5, 1996. Burhan Ozbilici/AP
Iraqi Kurds Fight Civil War

The two leading political parties in Iraqi Kurdistan, the PUK, led by Talabani, and the KDP, led by Barzani, fight a civil war that kills more than two thousand Kurds. In 1996, Barzani appeals to Saddam Hussein for assistance as Talabani’s PUK receives support from Iran. The conflict ends with the U.S.-brokered Washington Peace Agreement on September 17, 1998.

Turkish special forces flank a bound and handcuffed Abdullah Ocalan, who was captured in Kenya on February 16, 1999. Ocalan was flown to Turkey, where he was convicted of treason.
Turkish special forces flank a bound and handcuffed Abdullah Ocalan, who was captured in Kenya. Ocalan was flown to Turkey, where he was convicted of treason. Reuters
PKK’s Ocalan Arrested

In 1980, PKK leader Ocalan finds refuge under Hafez al-Assad’s protection in Syria. In 1998, under military pressure from Turkey, Syria signs the Adana Agreement, which commits to ending support for the PKK, and Ocalan flees. With U.S. help, Ocalan is apprehended by Turkish forces in Nairobi in 1999, and he is sentenced to life imprisonment for treason. Ocalan’s arrest sparks Kurdish protests throughout Turkey and across Europe. Following his capture, the PKK declares a unilateral cease-fire, which ends in June 2004.

A portrait of Saddam Hussein is shown being destroyed in Kirkuk on April 10, 2003. Kurdish troops captured Kirkuk with the aid of American troops during the U.S. invasion of Iraq.
A portrait of Saddam Hussein is destroyed in Kirkuk on April 10, 2003. Kurdish troops captured the city with aid from U.S. troops during the U.S. invasion of Iraq. Thomas Dworzak/Magnum
U.S. Invasion Paves Way for KRG Autonomy

U.S. forces invade Iraq, toppling Saddam Hussein. Kurds play a central role in drafting the interim Iraqi constitution, which recognizes the autonomy of the KRG within the new federal system. Talabani is named the first Kurdish president of Iraq. Kurdish parties participate in 2005 elections and are included in Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki’s unity government in 2006. The KRG remains a part of the federal Iraqi state through the present.

A teacher recites the Kurdish alphabet in the city of Batman, Turkey. Turkish legislative and constitutional reforms expanded Kurdish political and cultural rights, permitting classes to be taught Kurdish for the first time.
A teacher recites the Kurdish alphabet in a classroom in Turkey. Turkish permitted classes to be taught Kurdish for the first time. AP
Turkey Introduces Reforms

Working toward EU membership, Turkey introduces legislative and constitutional reforms that expand Kurdish political and cultural rights, such as permitting the use of the Kurdish language in national television broadcasts. In 2009, Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan’s Justice and Development Party (AKP) government announces a “Kurdish Initiative” with plans for further reforms, which wavers in response to nationalist backlash.

A Syrian Kurdish woman waves the flag of the Democratic Union Party
A Syrian Kurdish woman carries the PYD flag. Delil Souleiman/AFP/Getty Images
Syrian Kurds Found PYD

Affiliated with the militant Turkish PKK, the Kurdish Democratic Union Party (PYD) is founded in Syria. Its platform calls for the recognition of Kurdish rights and regional autonomy. Its loyalty to the PKK puts it at odds with other Syrian Kurdish parties, as well as the Barzani-led KRG in Iraq.

A group of Kurdish demonstrators in Qamishli, Syria, are seen protesting the arrest of PKK leader Abdullah Ocalan on March 21, 2004. Riots in Qamishli had been ongoing since March 12, after Syrian forces opened fire on a Kurdish funeral procession.
Kurdish demonstrators in Qamishli, Syria, protest the arrest of PKK leader Ocalan on March 21, 2004. Ramzi Haidar/AFP/Getty
Kurds Stage Mass Protests in Syria’s Qamishli

Syrian Kurds take to the streets in Qamishli after Syrian forces open fire on a procession mourning nine Kurdish youths who died in a brawl between Arabs and Kurds at a soccer match. Syrian forces crack down on mass demonstrations, which spread to neighboring towns as well as Aleppo and Damascus, and also inspire protests by Kurds in Europe.

A member of the Party for a Free Life in Kurdistan trains in the Qandil mountains, in northern Iraq, in December 2009.
A PJAK member trains in northern Iraq’s Qandil mountains in December 2009. Yahya Ahmed/AP
PJAK Emerges in Iran

The Party for a Free Life in Kurdistan (PJAK), a PKK-inspired guerrilla group that claims to have three thousand fighters, takes up arms against the Iranian state. The United States designates PJAK a terrorist organization in 2009 over its ties to the PKK. In 2011, PJAK signs a cease-fire agreement with the Iranian government following a massive military campaign that kills hundreds.

President Bashar al-Assad addresses the Syrian parliament in Damascus on March 30, 2011. It was Assad's first public address after protests broke out in early 2011.
President Bashar al-Assad addresses the Syrian parliament in Damascus on March 30, 2011. SANA/Reuters
Syria’s Assad Grants Some Kurds Citizenship

Seeking to court Kurdish support amid an uprising, embattled President Bashar al-Assad issues Decree 49, which grants citizenship to Kurds who were registered as foreigners in the 1962 census. Kurds who were never registered remain stateless.

Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan and KRG President Masoud Barzani attend the opening of Erbil International Airport in 2011.
Turkish Prime Minister Erdogan and KRG President Barzani attend the opening of Erbil International Airport in 2011. Kurdistan Regional Government
Turkey, KRG Grow Closer

Reversing earlier policy, Turkey deepens ties and energy cooperation with Iraqi Kurds following the U.S. withdrawal from Iraq. In April 2011, Prime Minister Erdogan becomes the first Turkish leader to visit Iraqi Kurdistan. Following this is a historic visit by KRG President Barzani to Diyarbakir, in southeastern Turkey, in November 2013. Meanwhile, in May 2012, the parties agree to build three pipelines to bring oil and gas from the KRG to Turkey.

A Kurdish supporter of the PKK holds a portrait of jailed leader Abdullah Ocalan during a demonstration in Beirut, Lebanon, on February 15, 2015.
A Kurdish supporter of the PKK holds a portrait of Ocalan during a demonstration in Beirut, Lebanon. Hussein Malla/AP
Turkey, PKK Renew Peace Talks

Direct official negotiations between the Turkish government and jailed PKK leader Ocalan seek to bring an end to three decades of conflict, which has killed an estimated forty thousand people. Secret negotiations in Oslo that began in 2009 were revealed when a tape was leaked in 2011.

A YPG fighter at a checkpoint near Ras al-Ain in Syria on November 5, 2013. Kurdish militias had recaptured the city and its surrounding villages from Islamist rebels, leading to a declaration of autonomy in northern Syria.
A YPG fighter sits at a checkpoint near Ras al-Ain in Syria. Kurdish militias captured the city and its surrounding villages, leading to the declaration of autonomy. Reuters
Kurds Declare Autonomy in Northern Syria

Amid the country’s civil war, the Kurdish PYD unilaterally declares three autonomous cantons in Syria’s north known as Rojava (Western Kurdistan).

Oil refinery parts are shipped into the Kawergosk Refinery, east of Erbil in the autonomous Kurdish region of Iraq, on July 14, 2014.
Oil refinery parts are shipped to the Kawergosk Refinery in the autonomous Kurdish region of Iraq, on July 14, 2014. Safin Hamed/AFP/Getty Images
KRG Bypasses Baghdad to Sell Oil

Iraqi Kurdistan begins direct energy exports, raising concerns in Baghdad and Washington that the oil revenue may allow Kurds to seek independence. In a sign of warming relations, Turkey is among the KRG’s oil buyers. Baghdad retaliates by blocking the KRG’s 17 percent share of federal revenues, leading to a fiscal crisis for the Kurdish region. In a December 2014 agreement, Kurds recommit to sell oil through Iraq’s national oil-marketing company in exchange for resumed federal revenue sharing.

An Islamic State fighter holds a flag bearing the group's symbol on the streets of Mosul, Iraq, on June 23, 2014.
An Islamic State fighter holds a flag bearing the group’s symbol on the streets of Mosul, Iraq, on June 23, 2014. Reuters
Rise of Islamic State

Aiming to establish a caliphate in the Levant, the self-proclaimed Islamic State, a Sunni Muslim jihadi group, takes control of large swaths of Iraq, including Mosul, Iraq’s second-largest city, and territory controlled by the semiautonomous KRG. Iraqi national forces and the KRG’s peshmerga buckle in the face of Islamic State advances. However, in June, the peshmerga take control of the long-disputed, oil-rich city of Kirkuk.

Smoke rising from the Syrian border town of Kobani.
Smoke rises from the Syrian border town of Kobani following U.S.-led coalition air strikes against Islamic State targets in January 2015. Halil Fidan/Anadolu Agency/Getty Images
Kurds Battle Islamic State in Kobani

Islamic State militants attack Kobani, a strategically located Syrian Kurdish town that borders Turkey and is controlled by the PYD. As the PYD defends itself, the United States comes to its support with heavy air strikes and airdrops of armaments. U.S. support for the PKK’s affiliate leads to a crisis in U.S.-Turkey relations.

YPG fighters take control of Tal Abyad, dealing a blow to the Islamic State.
YPG fighters take control of Tal Abyad, dealing a blow to the Islamic State. Ahmet Sik/Getty Images
Syrian Kurds Consolidate Territory

YPG forces and allied Arab rebels cap a monthslong offensive against the Islamic State by capturing Tel Abyad, a Syrian town along the border with Turkey that was a transit point for the Islamic State’s capital, Raqqa. The campaign expands the territory controlled by the Kurds in northern Syria and consolidates it from three noncontiguous regions to two.

Turkish Armed Forces member Gokhan Sonmezates informs Turkish Prime Minister Ahmet Davutoglu about all measures against threats targeting the countrys borders
A Turkish military official (L) talks with Turkish Prime Minister Ahmet Davutoglu about threats from the Islamic State in July 2015. Halil Sagirkaya/Anadolu Agency/Getty Images
Turkey Attacks Islamic State, PKK

Turkey joins the fight against the Islamic State and begins bombing the group’s positions in Syria, while Turkey grants the United States access to its Incirlik Air Base to support air raids on Islamic State targets. At the same time, Turkey attacks PKK targets in Iraqi Kurdistan, ending a two-year cease-fire. Earlier in the week, a suicide bombing attributed to the Islamic State kills thirty-two people in Suruc, a Kurdish-majority Turkish town on the Syrian border.

Turkish tanks drive towards the Turkish-Syrian border.
Turkish tanks drive towards the Turkish-Syrian border. Umit Bektas/Reuters
Turkey Intervenes in Syria

After years of supporting Syrian rebels, Turkey intervenes directly in northern Syria, backing Arab fighters against the Islamic State. Part of the motivation is to restrict Syrian Kurds from connecting their two cantons, and that goal was largely achieved during the seven-month operation. The Turkish deployment of troops and advisors halts a Kurdish advance west of the Euphrates River and creates a complex front line that includes the two opposing U.S. allies and Russia- and Iran-backed forces loyal to the Assad regime.

YPG fighters near Syria's border with Turkey stand by a U.S. military vehicle.
YPG fighters stand by a U.S. military vehicle near Syria’s border with Turkey. Rodi Said/Reuters
U.S. Arms Syrian Kurds

U.S. President Donald J. Trump approves a plan to arm the Syrian Democratic Forces, a militia dominated by the YPG, directly via the Defense Department as the U.S.-led coalition against the Islamic State prepares to seize Raqqa. The move angers Turkey, which has previously tried and failed to promote its proxies to take the lead in Raqqa.

Kurdish women voting.
Women in Sulaymaniyah show their fingers after voting in the Iraq referendum. Alaa Al-Marjani/Reuters
Iraqi Kurds Vote for Independence

Voters in Iraqi Kurdistan overwhelmingly choose independence in a referendum held by regional officials despite objections by the Iraqi government. Baghdad rejects attempts to break up the state, as well as the KRG’s insistence on holding the vote in the disputed oil-rich territory of Kirkuk. While KRG President Barzani hoped a resounding “yes” vote would bolster the KRG in negotiations with Baghdad over separating from Iraq, the central government refuses talks, and instead threatens to isolate the region, as do Iran and Turkey.

Turkish and Free Syrian Army forces are deployed in Afrin.
Turkish and Free Syrian Army forces are deployed in Afrin. Khalil Ashawi/Reuters
Turkish Troops Capture City Held by Syrian Kurds

After a monthslong battle that kills dozens of civilians, President Recep Tayyip Erdogan says Turkish forces and allied Syrian rebels have gained “total control” of Afrin, a city in northern Syria previously held by YPG forces. Tens of thousands of civilians flee their homes, according to the United Nations.

SDF fighters fly a flag in Baghouz.
SDF fighters fly a flag in Baghouz. Giuseppe Cacace/AFP/Getty Images
Syrian Kurds Declare Victory Over Islamic State

The SDF take control of areas around the town of Baghouz, near the Iraq-Syria border, the last populated area held by the Islamic State. An SDF spokesperson declares the “total elimination of [the] so-called caliphate,” and U.S. officials say it marks the end of the Islamic State’s territorial rule. But they warn that Islamic State fighters still pose a threat.

President Trump speaks after getting a briefing from senior military leaders in October 2019.
President Trump speaks after getting a briefing from senior military leaders in October 2019. Mark Wilson/Getty Images
U.S. Withdraws Troops From Northern Syria

President Trump announces the removal of U.S. troops from northern Syria, clearing the way for the Turkish military to launch an offensive against the SDF. Almost immediately, Turkish forces cross the border, aiming to push Kurdish forces out of a twenty-mile-deep buffer zone from the Turkish border. Hundreds of thousands of people flee in the first few days of the invasion. The SDF turns to the Syrian government for help, allowing its forces to reenter areas that had been held by the Kurds for years. Russian troops also enter the region to support Syrian government forces. The United States announces tariffs on Turkish steel and imposes sanctions on top officials to pressure Ankara to halt the offensive.

Timeline
The Kurds’ Quest for Independence