In 1810, Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla calls for Mexico’s independence from Spain, spurring a series of revolts across the country that becomes known as the Hidalgo rebellion. The rebellion fails, but fighting continues. Meanwhile, the United States and Spain are locked in a debate over the border between their territories. In 1819, the Adams-Onis Treaty, also known as the Transcontinental Treaty, draws a definitive border between Spanish land and the Louisiana Territory. The United States cedes California, New Mexico, Texas, and territory that will become the states of Arizona, Nevada, and Utah to Spain; it also agrees to pay U.S. citizens’ land claims against Spain up to $5 million. In 1821, Mexico gains independence from Spain under the Treaty of Cordoba.