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December 20, 2019

North Korea
North Korea’s Military Capabilities

Kim Jong-un has accelerated North Korea’s buildup of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction, while also modernizing its large conventional force.

Vehicles carry missiles during a military parade in Pyongyang.

August 22, 2019

Japan
The U.S.-Japan Security Alliance

The alliance with Japan has been the cornerstone of U.S. security policy in East Asia for decades, but new challenges from China, North Korea, and within the alliance itself raise questions about its…

Former U.S. Defense Secretary Leon Panetta addresses U.S. and Japanese forces at Yokota Air Base outside of Tokyo, October 24, 2011.

July 16, 2019

North Korea
What to Know About Sanctions on North Korea

Kim Jong-un hopes a summit with President Trump will lead to sanctions relief, while experts disagree over whether increased pressure would push Pyongyang toward denuclearization.

A woman works at a textile mill in Pyongyang, North Korea.

June 25, 2019

China
The China–North Korea Relationship

China is North Korea’s biggest trade partner and has leverage over Kim Jong-un’s regime, yet its policies focus more on border stability than nuclear threat.

Xi Jinping and Kim Jong-un wear black suits, stand out the sunroof of a car, and wave to people in Pyongyang, North Korea.

April 29, 2019

Sub-Saharan Africa
Africa’s ‘Leaders for Life’

Sub-Saharan Africa is home to many of the world’s longest-ruling heads of state, but civil society and regional blocs may be slowing the trend of extending presidential terms in some areas.

A taxi passes an electoral poster for Cameroonian President Paul Biya in a market in Yaounde.

December 19, 2011

Nonproliferation, Arms Control, and Disarmament
North Korea After Kim

Kim Jong-il’s death has prompted discussion about the future of the isolated country and its nuclear weapons program. Experts cited in this CFR Backgrounder believe a post-Kim regime in North Korea w…

April 9, 2019

International Organizations
The World Bank Group’s Role in Global Development

Since its founding in 1944, the World Bank has evolved from a lender focused on European reconstruction to the preeminent international institution for economic development and poverty reduction.

KM Asad/NurPhoto via Getty Images

July 19, 2018

North Korea
North Korea’s Power Structure

In North Korea, all authority flows from Supreme Leader Kim Jong-un. He has reinstated the party as the central hub to consolidate his power and bring elites to heel.

Pedestrians walk past portraits of Kim Il-sung and Kim Jong-il.

August 8, 2018

Nigeria
Nigeria’s Battle With Boko Haram

Boko Haram, known for mass kidnappings, bombings, and other acts of terrorism, remains an enduring threat to northern Nigeria and the Lake Chad Basin.

A girl watches other children on a merry-go-round in an abandoned amusement park in Maiduguri, Nigeria.

July 17, 2018

Nuclear Weapons
‘No First Use’ and Nuclear Weapons

Nearly all nuclear weapon states, as a matter of policy, remain ready to use their weapons without having first suffered a nuclear attack.

Kevin Lamarque/Reuters