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October 5, 2021

International Organizations
The Role of the UN Secretary-General

The United Nations’ top leadership position has broad authority to steer the organization’s agenda, but its impact has varied widely since 1946.

UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres sits for a photograph at the UN headquarters in Manhattan.

September 10, 2021

Health
What Is the FDA’s Role in Public Health?

The U.S. health agency regulates the country’s foods and drugs, among other products. The COVID-19 pandemic and controversy over vaccines and treatments have highlighted the FDA’s role.

An FDA worker tests a medical device using a water bath.

January 15, 2021

United States
A Unique Military Force: The U.S. National Guard

The National Guard is a special part of the U.S. military that answers to both state governors and the president. In some instances, how leaders have used the Guard has generated controversy, particu…

Members of the Connecticut National Guard survey flooded areas in Florida from a helicopter as part of the response to Hurricane Irma.

November 18, 2013

Pakistan
Pakistan’s New Generation of Terrorists

Pakistan has emerged as a sanctuary for some of the world’s most violent groups, including al-Qaeda, the Taliban, and homegrown militants, that threaten the stability of Pakistan as well as the regio…

A paramilitary soldier stands guard after a suicide bomber blew himself up near a Peshawar police station.

October 25, 2006

United States
Flynn: Homeland Security ’Report Card’

To mark its fifth anniversary, Stephen E. Flynn, CFR’s leading national security expert, evaluates the general performance of the Office of Homeland Security.

September 28, 2007

Iraq
The Iraq Data Debate: Civilian Casualties from 2006 to 2007

Gen. David Petraeus’ assertions about falling casualties in Iraq are supported by a range of objective sources. But his testimony to Congress does not establish whether the decline is attributable to…

March 10, 2010

Iraq
IRAQ: Coalition Provisional Authority: The Iraqi Ministries

This publication is now archived. Senior advisers from the U.S.-led coalition will head Iraqi ministries until an interim government is put into place. Three Iraqi ministries have not been re-establi…

February 7, 2018

Nuclear Weapons
U.S. Nuclear Weapons Modernization

U.S. strategic and tactical nuclear weapons on land, in the air, and at sea, will undergo costly and extensive modernization in the coming years.

Ian Dudley/Reuters

November 2, 2011

China
Confronting U.S.-China Economic Imbalances

An undervalued Chinese yuan remains a contributing factor to the U.S.-China trade imbalance, but experts warn that labeling China a "currency manipulator" will not rein in mounting U.S. deficits.

November 20, 2008

Trade
The African Growth and Opportunity Act

The African Growth and Opportunity Act has boosted U.S.-Africa trade and is viewed favorably by economists. But experts say African states must build trade capacity to benefit fully.