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August 24, 2022

Middle East and North Africa
Turkey’s Growing Foreign Policy Ambitions

Turkey’s geography and membership in NATO have long given the country an influential voice in foreign policy, but the assertive policies of President Erdogan have complicated its role.

Recep Tayyip Erdogan speaking in front of massive Turkish flags and portraits of himself and Mustafa Kemal Ataturk

September 15, 2022

United Nations
The Role of the UN Secretary-General

The United Nations’ top leadership position has broad authority to steer the organization’s agenda, but its impact has varied widely since 1946.

UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres sits for a photograph at the UN headquarters in Manhattan.

May 25, 2022

Lebanon
What Is Hezbollah?

Military experience gained from fighting in Syria’s civil war and decades of clashes with Israel have made the Iran-backed group stronger than ever, but the biggest threat it faces may be upheaval in…

A crowd of Hezbollah supporters surrounds a giant model of a fist holding a gun.

April 28, 2017

Syrian Civil War
Who’s Who in Syria’s Civil War

Syria’s civil war is being fought on multiple fronts by an array of combatants whose alliances, capabilities, and in some cases motives have been in flux.

Rebel fighters train in western Deraa governorate.

September 15, 2006

Syria
Syria: U.S. Policy Options

The United States has long tried to compel Syria to adjust its behavior, but rarely with any result. This backgrounder examines the current U.S. policy options toward Syria.

September 7, 2022

United Nations
The Role of the UN General Assembly

The UN General Assembly hosts a much-watched debate of world leaders each year but has struggled to make its work more substantive.

A wide shot of the UN General Assembly Chamber as President Biden speaks.

October 19, 2017

Iraq
What to Watch For in Post-ISIS Iraq and Syria

As the campaigns to wrest the Islamic State from the territory it held in Iraq and Syria near completion, new conflicts may arise if old political arrangements prevail.

Syrian Democratic Forces fighters celebrate victory in Raqqa.

September 11, 2013

Syria
Syria’s Crisis and the Global Response

An end to Syria’s conflict seems unlikely in the near term, as a number of obstacles on and off the battlefield have stymied international diplomatic efforts, explains this Backgrounder.

July 2, 2012

Syria
Syria’s Leaders

As international attention focuses on the Syrian regime of President Bashar al-Assad, cfr.org profiles some of the nation’s top leaders.

February 1, 2008

Terrorism and Counterterrorism
State Sponsor: Syria

Syria has a history of aiding terrorist organizations, and is one of five nations on the U.S. State Department’s list of state sponsors of terrorism. Along with Iran, Syria has given substantial back…