Promoting U.S. Economic Relations with Africa

Task Force Report
Analysis and policy prescriptions of major foreign policy issues facing the United States, developed through private deliberations among a diverse and distinguished group of experts.

In 1997, Washington paid unprecedented attention to Africa and its continental rebirth. Both then-First Lady Hillary Clinton and then-Secretary of State Madeleine Albright toured the continent. President Clinton unveiled the “Partnership for Growth and Opportunity in Africa” to promote greater trade and investment in the region.

Yet, this independent Task Force finds, recent initiatives to strengthen U.S. policy toward Africa fall short of what is required. It recommends a more comprehensive approach that integrates policy in the areas of foreign assistance, trade and investment, and debt reduction. The Task Force calls for the White House to promote economic relations more effectively, given the opportunities that Africa’s renewal offers, not only to African nations and the United States, but also the larger global community as well.

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Foreign Aid

Sub-Saharan Africa

The Task Force’s recommendations include: passing legislation to increase African access to U.S. markets; creating enterprise funds to mobilize greater U.S. private sector investment in Africa; establishing a U.S.-Africa Economic Forum and initiating plans for free-trade agreements with African countries or groups of countries; and designating a director for African affairs at the National Security Council to be responsible for African economic affairs and coordinating efforts under the “Partnership” program.

More on:


Foreign Aid

Sub-Saharan Africa

Task Force Members

Endorsers of the Statement:

Harold M. Agnew is the former director of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, President of General Atomics, chairman of the general advisory committee to the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA), and New Mexico State senator. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences.

Kofi Appenteng is a partner in the law firm of Thacher Proffitt and Wood.

David E. Apter is Henry J. Heinz II professor of comparative political and social development at Yale University. He is chairman of the Council on African Studies and chairman of the sociology department.

James E. Baker is an adjunct professor at Long Island University. He served as a Foreign Service officer in the Department of State (1960-80) and as a senior official of the United Nations (1980-95).

Pauline H. Baker is president of the Fund for Peace. She is also co-chair of the Women's Foreign Policy Group and teaches at Georgetown University. She served as staff director of the Senate African Affairs Subcommittee.

John C. Beyer is president of Nathan Associates, an international economic consulting firm. He previously worked with the Ford Foundation and the Brookings Institution.

Richard E. Bissell was assistant administrator of the U.S. Agency for International Development between 1986 and 1993.

Salih Bookeris senior fellow and director for Africa Studies at the Council on Foreign Relations. He was a professional staff member of the House Foreign Affairs Committee, served in Africa as a program officer for the Ford Foundation, and worked as a consultant for the Carnegie Corporation, the U.N. Development Program (UNDP), and the African Development Foundation.

Zeb B. Bradford Jr., is vice president of military affairs at the Traveler's Group. He was chief of plans and programs for NATO/SHAPE headquarters in Belgium and headed international strategic planning for the United Technologies Corporation.

William L. Bradley was an associate director of the Rockefeller Foundation and president of the Edward W. Hazen Foundation, prior to retirement.

Linda P. Brady is chair of the Sam Nunn School of International Affairs at Georgia Tech. She worked on defense and arms control issues in the U.S. Departments of State and Defense during the Carter and Reagan administrations.

John D. Brewer is the special assistant to the assistant secretary of state for intelligence and research, Toby Gati. He was a program officer with the Woodrow Wilson Foundation and served on the staff of former U.S. Senator Wyche Fowler of Georgia.

Robert S. Browne is president of the Twenty-First Century Foundation. He is the former U.S. executive director at the African Development Fund.

Judith Bruce is the director of the Gender, Family, and Development Program at the Population Council. She has written extensively on changing family roles, women's access to resources and their role on economic development, and the quality of reproductive health care.

Thomas Callaghy is chair of the department of political science at the University of Pennsylvania and a member of the University's African Studies Center's Executive Committee.

Herman J. Cohen is senior adviser to the Global Coalition for Africa. He is a former ambassador to Senegal and served as assistant secretary of state for Africa under President George H.W. Bush.

Roberta Cohen is a guest scholar at the Brookings Institution. She is a former deputy assistant secretary of state for human rights and a recipient of the United States Information Agency (USIA) Superior Honor Award for reopening the public affairs program in Ethiopia.

Julius E. Coles is the director of Howard University's Ralph J. Bunche International Affairs Center. Prior to joining Howard University in 1994, he was a senior official with the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) for some twenty-eight years and retired with the rank of career minister. He was mission director in Swaziland and Senegal and served in Vietnam, Morocco, Liberia, Nepal, and Washington, DC.

Goodwin Cooke is professor of international relations in the Maxwell School at Syracuse University. He was ambassador to the Central African Republic.

Chester A. Crocker is distinguished professor in the practice of diplomacy, Georgetown University, and chairman of the board at the U.S. Institute of Peace. He served as assistant secretary of state for African affairs (1981-89).

Kenneth A. Cutshaw is counsel for the member-based law firm of Smith, Grambell and Russell. He served as deputy and acting assistant secretary of commerce for export enforcement.

George A. Dalley is a partner in the law office of Holland and Knight, practicing public and international law. He was deputy assistant secretary of state for international organizations and congressional state director.

Maceo N. Davis is chairman and chief executive officer of International Resources Exchange Corporation. He has done business in Africa and the Middle East for the past fifteen years.

Edwin A. Deagle Jr., is chairman of the Potomac Finishing Company.

Vivian Lowery Derryck is a senior vice president and director of public policy of the Academy for Educational Development and senior adviser to the Africa Leadership Forum. She also served as president of the African-American Institute and as deputy assistant secretary of state in the Carter and Reagan administrations.

Mustafah Dhada is associate professor of international affairs at the School of International Affairs and Development at Clark Atlanta University. He is a recent Fulbright scholar, specializing in conflict resolution and focusing on Lusophone affairs.

Joel Dreyfuss is editor-in-chief of Our World News, a national weekly with a black perspective.

Peggy Dulany is chair of ProVentures, a business-development company for Latin America and southern Africa. She is also president and founder of the Synergos Institute. She has consulted with the United Nations and the Ford Foundation on health care and family planning in Brazil, the United States, and Portugal, and with the National Endowment for the Arts on nonprofit management and planning.

Jose W. Fernandez is a partner at O'Melveny and Myers, LLP. He specializes in infrastructure projects in the developing world and has advised the governments of Ghana, Ivory Coast, Uganda, and Zambia on the restructuring and privatization of their telecommunications sectors.

Frank E. Ferrari is vice president of ProVentures, Inc. He was senior vice president of the African-American Institute and the director of the Institute's South African-Johannesburg office.

David J. Fischer is president of the World Affairs Council of Northern California. A retired ambassador, he served for nearly a decade in African affairs in the U.S. Department of State.

William R. Ford is president of the African Development Foundation (ADF). He served in the U.S. Foreign Service for twenty years prior to joining ADF.

Wayne Fredericks was deputy assistant secretary of state for Africa during the Kennedy and Johnson administrations. He was the head of the Africa and Middle East Program of the Ford Foundation (1967-74) and executive director of international governmental affairs of the Ford Motor Company (1974-88).

Dennis Gallagher is the founder and executive director of the Refugee Policy Group.

Robert G. Gard is president of the Monterey Institute of International Studies. He was director of the John Hopkins Bologna (Italy) Center and president of the National Defense University.

Henry Louis Gates Jr., is chair of the Afro-American studies department at Harvard University.

David Ginsburg is currently senior counsel for the law firm of Ginsburg, Feldman and Bress. He has served in the Roosevelt, Truman, and Johnson administrations on domestic and foreign affairs assignments.

Tatiana C. Gfoeller is deputy chief of mission at the American Embassy, Ashgabat. She joined the U.S. Foreign Service in 1984.

David F. Gordon is director of the U.S. Program at the Overseas Development Council.

Ernest G. Green is managing director of public finance at Lehman Brothers.

Brandon Grove is senior consultant to the international public affairs firm of APCO Associates. A career Foreign Service officer, he has served in West Africa and as ambassador to Zaire.

Robert D. Haas is the chairman and chief executive officer of Levi Strauss and Company.

John P. Hall is a corporate finance banker at JP Morgan focusing on the high-technology sector. He has worked and traveled extensively in Africa.

Charles V. Hamilton is Wallace S. Sayre professor of government at Columbia University.

Ulric Haynes, Jr., is executive dean for international relations at Hofstra University. Formerly, he was an administrative officer in the U.N. Secretariat, a Foreign Service officer, a member of the staff of the National Security Council, and U.S. ambassador to Algeria.

Elaine Heifetz is a retired Foreign Service reserve officer who has served as a member of the U.S. delegation to the United Nations and as director of the U.S. State Department's New York Reception Center, which administered programs of distinguished international visitors.

Henry L. Heintzen was a Foreign Service officer in Ethiopia, Morocco, and Tanzania. He was also chief of the Voice of America Africa Division and founding director of the Voice of America program that trained thousands of foreign journalists.

Jean Herskovits is professor of African history at the State University of New York at Purchase. She has testified before Congress, served as a corporate and foundation consultant, and written about African affairs.

Irvin Hicks Sr. is the former U.S. ambassador to Ethiopia and Seychelles and deputy U.S. representative in the Security Council. He also served as deputy assistant secretary of state for African affairs.

Christine M. Y. Ho is president of Think, Inc., a global intelligence resource.

Nancy L. Hoepli-Phalon is editor-in-chief of the Foreign Policy Association.

Adonis E. Hoffman is an international lawyer and public policy counselor in Washington, DC. A senior fellow at the World Policy Institute, he was senior associate at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace and director of African affairs in the U.S. House of Representatives.

Richard O. Hope is vice president at the Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation. He was executive director of the QEM Project with the Carnegie Corporation and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Particia L. Irvin is head of the corporate department and managing partner of the Washington, DC, office of the law firm of Cooper, Liebowitz, Royster and Wright. She was deputy assistant secretary of defense in the Clinton administration and Partner in the Wall Street law firm of Milbank, Tweed, Hadley and McCloy.

Eric K. Jackson is a fellow in the Malcolm Wiener Center for Social Policy at the John F. Kennedy School of Government. His research focuses on the social impact of targeted investment strategies for development.

Robert D. Joffe is a partner at Cravath, Swaine and Moore, a member of both the board of directors and the executive committee of the Lawyers Committee for Human Rights, and a member of the advisory council of Human Rights Watch/Africa. He was in the Malawi Ministry of Justice on a Maxwell School Africa Public Service Fellowship (1967-69).

Willard R. Johnson is professor emeritus of political science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he has specialized in African economic and political development and international relations.

Richard A. Joseph is Asa G. Candler professor of political science of Emory University. He specializes in democratization and state building in Africa.

Kenneth I. Juster is a partner in the law firm of Arnold and Porter. He was acting counselor of the U.S. Department of State (1992-93) and deputy and senior adviser to the Deputy Secretary of State Lawrence Eagleburger (1989-92).

Thomas G. Karis is senior research fellow at the Ralph Bunche Institute and professor emeritus of political science at the CUNY Graduate School.

Andrew M. Karmarck is retired from the World Bank, where he was successively economic adviser on Africa, director of the economics department, and director of the Economic Development Institute. He is the author of The Economics of African Development and The Tropics and Economic Development.

Jordan Kassalow is the director of onchocerciasis programs for Helen Keller International. He is also a member of the Technical Consultative Committee for the World Bank's African Program for Onchocerciasis Control.

Charlotte G. Kea is a senior manager in the Eurasia division of Iridium, LLC. She is the former special assistant to the assistant secretary and director general of the commercial service in the U.S. Department of Commerce.

Edmond J. Keller is professor of political science and director of the James S. Coleman African Studies Center at UCLA. He is a past president of the African Studies Association and a founding member of the Pacific Council on International Policy.

John H. Kelly is managing director of International Equity Partners. He was ambassador to Finland and to Lebanon and served as assistant secretary of state for the Near East and South Asia.

Herbert C. Kelman is the Richard Clarke Cabot professor of social ethics of Harvard University and directs the Program on international conflict analysis and resolution at the Harvard Center for International Affairs. He received the 1997 Grawemeyer Award for Ideas Improving World Order.

Robert H. Knight is of counsel to Shearmen and Sterling, of which he is former senior partner. He was chairman of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, general deputy assistant secretary of defense, and general counsel of the U.S. Treasury Department.

Lucy Komisar is an international affairs journalist, a grantee of the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, and a fellow of the John Simon Guggenheim Foundation, where she is writing a book on U.S. foreign policy and human rights in the 1970s and 1980s.

Mahesh K. Kotecha is a managing director of Capital Markets Assurance Corporation and CapMAC Asia. He is an alternate director of ASIA Ltd. and serves on the international advisory panel of the East African Development Bank. He was an investment banker with Kidder Peabody and Co. and a rating agency executive at Standard and Poor's.

Stephen E. Lamar is the vice president at Jefferson Waterman International. He has advised African governments on promoting trade and investment with the United States and served in the International Trade Administration's Office of Africa.

Carol Lancaster is a visiting fellow at the Institute for International Economics and is on the faculty at the School of Foreign Service of Georgetown University. She formerly served as deputy administrator of the U.S. Agency for International Development and deputy assistant secretary of state in the Bureau of African Affairs.

James T. Laney was U.S. ambassador to the Republic of Korea (1993-97). He served as president of Emory University for 16 years.

John Foster Leich is a retired Foreign Service officer, divisional director of the Free Europe Committee, and professor of political science and foreign languages. Currently, he is coordinator of Elderhostels, Institute of World Affairs in Salisbury, Connecticut.

Louis C. Lenzen is an attorney specializing in the mediation and arbitration of international commercial disputes.

William M. LeoGrande is professor of government in the School of Public Affairs at American University. He served on the staff of the Democratic Policy Committee of the U.S. Senate.

David F. Linowes is professor of political economy and public policy of the University of Illinois. He is former chairman of the U.S. Privacy Protection Commission and chairman of President Reagan's Commission on Privatization.

Charles MacCormack is President of Save the Children Federation, Inc., a development and humanitarian assistance organization working in forty countries overseas and in the United States. He was president and chief executive officer of World Learning/The Experiment in International Living.

John D. Maguire is president of Claremont Graduate University in California and a regional adviser of the Institute for International Studies. He has served as provost at Wesleyan University, president of the State University of New York's College at Old Westbury, and adviser to the RAND Center for Research on Immigration Policy.

Anthony Marx is associate professor of political science at Columbia University and a Guggenheim Fellow. He is the author of Lessons of Struggle and Making Race and Nation.

Kenneth Maxwell is Nelson and David Rockefeller senior fellow for inter-American studies at the Council on Foreign Relations and former director of studies at the Council. He has written extensively on decolonization of the former Portuguese-speaking territories in Africa.

Robert C. McFarlane is president of McFarlane Associates, Inc.

Mora McLean is president of the African-American Institute. She served as counsel to the Commerce Subcommittee of the U.S. House of Representatives and was the Ford Foundation's representative for Nigeria and assistant representative for West Africa.

Sheila Ayrin McLean is president of the Association of Executive Search Consultants. She was general counsel to the U.S. Government's Foreign Economic Assistance Agency and senior officer of the Ford Foundation and the Institute of International Education.

Robert S. McNamara is former president of the World Bank.

Robert F. Meagher is professor emeritus of international law at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy. He has specialized in international economic law and development in Africa and other Third World countries.

Gwendolyn Mikell is director of the African studies program in the School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University and the former president of the African Studies Association, U.S.A. She served as a senior fellow at the U.S. Institute of Peace and a visiting fellow at both the Institute for African Studies at the University of Ghana-Legon and the Institute for Social Research at the University of Natal in Durban, South Africa.

David C. Miller Jr., is the former U.S. Ambassador to Tanzania and Zimbabwe. He served as special assistant to the president for national security affairs (1989-90) and currently serves as president of the Corporate Council on Africa.

Wandra G. Mitchell is managing director of Bahia Partners, Inc. She served as general counsel for the U.S. Agency for International Development and prior to that was in private practice, specializing in antitrust and international trade law.

Edwin S. Munger is professor emeritus of African Studies at the California Institute of Technology and president of the Cape of Good Hope Foundation.

Henry R. Nan is professor of political science and international affairs at the Elliott School of International Affairs, George Washington University. He served in the State Department (1975-77) and on the White House National Security Council (1981-83).

Gabriel Negatu is executive director of the Forum of African Development Organizations (FADVO)-US, a consortium of African nongovernmental organization networks committed to U.S.-Africa relations.

Priscilla A. Newman is vice president of AEA Investors, Inc. She previously worked as a staff member of the House Foreign Affairs Subcommittee on Africa and has worked in the area of international finance since that time.

David D. Newsom is currently Cumming professor of international relations at the University of Virginia. He served as assistant secretary of state for Africa (1969-73) and undersecretary for political affairs (1978-81).

Richard F. Pedersen is a board member of the Center for Civic Education. He was counselor of the State Department, U.S. ambassador to Hungary, deputy U.S. representative to the U.N. Security Council, and president of the American University in Cairo.

Robert Pelletreau is a partner in the international law firm of Afridi and Angell with offices in New York, Washington, DC, the United Arab Emirates, and Pakistan. He served in the U.S. Department of State as assistant secretary for Near Eastern affairs and as ambassador to Egypt, Tunisia, and Bahrain.

Gerard Piel was president and publisher of Scientific American (1948-86).

Gustav Ranis is the Frank Altschul professor of international economics at Yale University and the director of the Yale Center for International and Area Studies. He was assistant administrator for program and policy at the U.S. Agency for International Development and director of the Yale Economic Growth Center.

Ogden Reid is president of the Council of American Ambassadors and a member of several corporate boards, including Patent Development Corporation, General Physics, and Royce Labs. He served as the U.S. ambassador to Israel (1959-61) and as a member of Congress (1961-74) from the state of New York.

Yolonda C. Richardson is program officer at the Carnegie Corporation of New York working in the area of women's health and development and transitions to democracy in Africa. She serves on the board of several national public interest organizations and is a member of the American and National Bar Association, the Association of Black Foundations Executives, and the American Public Health Association.

John J. Roberts is vice chairman-external affairs of American International Group, Inc., an extensive worldwide network of insurance and financial services organizations in 130 countries and jurisdictions. He was executive vice president-foreign general of American International Group, Inc.

Riordan Roett is Sarita and Don Johnston professor of international relations and director of the Latin American studies program at the Johns Hopkins Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS).

Leonard H. Robinson is a fellow at the McCormack Institute of Public Affairs, University of Massachusetts-Boston and president of LHR International, a policy consulting firm. He was deputy assistant secretary of state and the first president of the African Development Foundation.

Patricia L. Rosenfield is chair of the Carnegie Corporation of New York's Program on Strengthening Human Resources in Developing Countries. Prior to joining Carnegie, she established, and for nine years ran, the social and economic research component of the U.N Development Program/World Bank/World Health Organization Special Program for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases.

Carol Knuth Sakoian is director of international business development for Scholastic, Inc. She has worked in many countries throughout Africa.

Michael A. Samuels is founder and president of Samuels International Associates, Inc., an international business and policy-consulting firm. He has served as ambassador to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), Deputy U.S. Trade Representative, and U.S. ambassador to Sierra Leone.

Frank Savageis is chairman of Alliance Capital Management International and a member of the board of directors of Alliance Capital Management Corporation. He was senior vice president of the Equitable Life Assurance Society and chairman of Equitable Capital Management Corporation.

Oscar Schachter is Hamilton Fish professor emeritus of international law and diplomacy at Columbia School of Law.

Daniel A. Sharp is president and chief executive officer of the American Assembly of Columbia University, whose most recent program was on U.S. national interests and Africa. He has held leadership positions in the United States and state government, private industry, not-for-profits and universities.

Sally Swing Shelley is the radio correspondent at the United Nations for Associated Press Special Assignment and Maryknoll Catholic Radio. She was a director in the U.N. Department of Public Information, serving as an election supervisor in Namibia and as head of the nongovernmental section.

James R. Silkenat is a partner at Winthrop, Stimson, Putnam and Roberts in New York. He is a former chairman of the American Bar Association Section of International Law and Practice and regularly works on project finance and privatization matters in Africa.

Joseph J. Sisco is a partner in the international management consulting firm Sisco Associates and a director of Braun, International Public Group Inc., Government Services, Inc., Raytheon, and the Newport News Shipbuilding. He is the former U.S. undersecretary of state and president of American University.

Theodore C. Sorensen is a senior partner at Paul, Weiss, Rifkind, Wharton, and Garrison, and a member of the board of the Council on Foreign Relations. He was special counsel to President John F. Kennedy.

Paul Soros is on the advisory board of Quantum Industrial Holdings and a director of numerous corporations. Formerly, he served as chief executive officer of Soros Associates, an international engineering company.

Scott M. Spangler is a former assistant administrator of the U.S. Agency for International Development. He is currently a private investor in Phoenix, Arizona.

John Stremlau is staff adviser to the Council on Preventing Deadly Conflict at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. He was deputy director of policy planning at the U.S. Department of State (1989-94).

Jack B. Sunderland is president of American Independent Oil Company. He has been active in business in Africa and the Near East since 1961.

James S. Sutterlin is distinguished fellow in U.N. Studies at Yale University and adjunct professor of political science at Long Island University. He is the former director of the executive office of the U.N. Secretary-General and served as inspector general of the U.S. Foreign Service.

Francis X. Sutton is former deputy vice president (international) at the Ford Foundation. He is currently a consultant to Aga Khan University and a writer on foundations and development.

Russell E. Train is chairman emeritus of the World Wildlife Fund. He is a former administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (1973-77), chairman of the Council on Environmental Quality (1970-73), and undersecretary ofi (1969-79). He founded the African Wildlife Leadership Foundation in 1961.

J. Michael Turner is associate professor of African and Latin American history at Hunter College-City University of New York. He was the democracy/governance adviser for the U.S. Agency for International Development in Mozambique, a project manager for the Democratic Initiatives Project, and a program officer initiating the Ford Foundation's Afro-Brazilian Affairs program in Rio. He has worked as a consultant for United Support of Artists for Africa, the World Bank, and the U.N. Secretariat.

Michael H. Van Dusen is the Democratic chief of staff on the Committee on International Relations in the House of Representatives.

Michaela Walsh is president of Women's Asset Management, Inc. She is a member of the board of directors of Women's World Banking and the Zimbabwe Progress Fund, among others.

Carl Ware is senior vice president and president, Africa Group, the Coca-Cola Company. He serves as chairman of the board of trustees of Clark Atlanta University and is a board member of the Southern Africa Enterprise Development Fund, the African-American Institute, and the Governor's Development Council (Georgia).

Cherri D. Waters is vice president of InterAction, a coalition of over 150 U.S.-based relief and development agencies. She was senior director for policy and research for the National Summit on Africa, executive director of the TransAfrica Forum Policy Institute, and director of the Office of Learning and Dissemination at the African Development Foundation.

Louis T. Wells is the Herbert F. Johnson professor of international management at Harvard Business School.

Charles W. Whalen Jr., is vice president of the Washington Institute of Foreign Affairs. He was a House member in Congress and served for six years on the Subcommittee on African Affairs.

C. S. Whitaker is university professor (emeritus in political science and anthropology) at the University of Southern California and senior fellow at the James S. Coleman African Studies Center, University of California, Los Angeles. He is a former dean of social sciences at the University of Southern California.

Jennifer Seymour Whitaker is deputy national director and senior fellow of the Council on Foreign Relations and former co-director of the Committee on African Development Strategies. She is the author of How Can Africa Survive? and Salvaging the Land of Plenty.

Irving A. Williamson is deputy general counsel in the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative.

Ernest J. Wilson III is director of the Center for International Development and Conflict Management and professor of government and politics at the University of Maryland, College Park. He was director for international programs and resources on the National Security Council.

Lucy Wilson Benson is president of Benson Associates, political and international consultants. She was undersecretary of state for international security, science, and technology and serves on several corporate, foundation, and nonprofit international relations boards.

W. Howard Wriggins is a retired professor of international politics at Columbia University. He is a former member of the policy planning council at the U.S. Department of State, member of the National Security Council Staff, and ambassador to Sri Lanka.

Andrew J. Young is co-chairman of GoodWorks International and is the former U.S. ambassador to the United Nations.

George H. Young III is managing director in the Telecommunications Group at Lehman Brothers, Inc.

Aristide R. Zolberg is university-in-exile professor of political science at the New School for Social Research. He has published widely on Africa and Europe and on international migration and refugees.

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