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October 3, 2019

Eurozone
The Role of the European Central Bank

As Europe has weathered a succession of economic crises, the European Central Bank has responded with an aggressive set of monetary policies that have redefined the bank’s original mandate.

Workers repair the euro sign in front of ECB headquarters

April 17, 2020

European Union
How Does the European Union Work?

The European Union has navigated a thicket of external and internal crises in recent years, including mass migration and Brexit. What are the union’s core institutions, and what roles do they play?

The chamber of the European Parliament during a voting session at the EU parliament's headquarters in Strasbourg..

March 17, 2020

International Economic Policy
Addressing the Global Dollar Shortage: More Swap Lines? A New Fed Repo Facility for Central Banks? More IMF Lending?

There is a global scramble for dollars going on. It needs to be addressed through creative policies.

FILE PHOTO: One hundred dollar notes are seen in this photo illustration at a bank in Seoul January 9, 2013.

November 5, 2019

Global
Central Bank Currency Swaps Tracker

Introduction Since the financial crisis of 2007, central banks around the world have entered into a multitude of bilateral currency swap agreements with one another. These agreements allow a centr…

May 26, 2020

Germany
Could the German International Arrest Warrant Against a GRU Hacker Prompt European Sanctions?

Germany's federal prosecutor has issued an international arrest warrant for suspected GRU hacker Dmitriy Sergeyevich Badin. This hints at the use of the European Union's Cyber Sanctions Regime to pun…

German Chancellor Angela Merkel addresses a news conference.

May 27, 2020

United States
Did the Dollar's Position as the Leading Reserve Currency Help Hold Treasury Yields Down This Spring?

Foreign Treasury sales, including large sales from reserve managers, made the Fed's job harder, not easier, in March.

Did the Dollar's Position as the Leading Reserve Currency Help Hold Treasury Yields Down This Spring?

May 27, 2020

Russia
Russia's Complex Oil Reality

This is a guest post by Hunter Kornfeind, intern for Energy and Climate Policy at the Council on Foreign Relations and current student at Temple University. Russia is coping with a new reality fro…

Workers stand next to a logo of Russia's Rosneft oil company at the central processing facility of the Rosneft-owned Priobskoye oil field outside the West Siberian city of Nefteyugansk, Russia.

May 27, 2020

South Africa
A Conversation With Judith February on Political Leadership and COVID-19 in South Africa

CFR Senior Fellow for Africa Studies Michelle Gavin interviews writer, lawyer, and governance expert Judith February.

Women carry bags of maize as people queue to receive food aid amid the spread of the novel coronavirus, near Pretoria, South Africa, on May 20, 2020.

May 27, 2020

South Africa
A Conversation With Judith February on Political Leadership and COVID-19 in South Africa

CFR Senior Fellow for Africa Studies Michelle Gavin interviews writer, lawyer, and governance expert Judith February.

Women carry bags of maize as people queue to receive food aid amid the spread of the novel coronavirus, near Pretoria, South Africa, on May 20, 2020.

May 22, 2020

Coronavirus
Scaling Up African Pharmaceutical Manufacturing in a Time of COVID-19

Africa is vulnerable to disruptions in global supply chains caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly with respect to pharmaceuticals, because between 70 and 90 percent are imported. But it has underutilized capacity to make up the difference.

Michael Otieno, a pharmacist, smiles as he marks with a pen a bottle of anti-retroviral (ARV) drugs at the Mater Hospital in Kenya's capital Nairobi, on September 10, 2015. He is wearing a white doctor's coat and is framed by a wooden booth.