Is Population Change a Problem?

Birth rates are booming in some countries and plummeting in others. Leading demographer Nicholas Eberstadt and Richard Haass analyze the most important trends and their consequences.

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  • Richard Haass
    President, Council on Foreign Relations
Episode Guests
  • Nicholas Eberstadt
    Henry Wendt Chair in Political Economy, American Enterprise Institute

Show Notes

About This Episode


In this episode of Nine Questions for the World, Richard Haass sits down with leading demographer Nicholas Eberstadt to discuss population trends around the world. How will societies change as birth rates fall in some regions and boom in others? And how will these changes affect the global economy? 


This podcast series was originally presented as “The 21st Century World: Big Challenges and Big Ideas,” an event series in celebration of CFR’s centennial. This episode is based on a live event that took place on September 14, 2021.


See the corresponding video here.


Dig Deeper


From Nicholas Eberstadt


Can America cope with demographic decline?,” American Enterprise Institute


Nicholas Eberstadt and Hans Groth, “Healthy Old Europe,” Foreign Affairs


The Demographic Future,” Foreign Affairs


From CFR 


John Campbell, “Africa at the Center of Twenty-First-Century Demographic Shift” 


John Campbell, “Nigeria’s Vice President Speaks Plainly on Population and Food” 


Maylin Meisenheimer, “China’s Baby Blues: When Better Policies for Women Backfire” 


Paul J. Angelo, Thomas J. Bollyky, Lauren A. Kahn, Sebastian Mallaby, Carl Minzner, and Laura D. Taylor-Kale, “Visualizing 2022: Trends to Watch


Japan’s Population Problem,” Why It Matters


The Future Is African,” Why It Matters


Read More


Demographic Destiny: What Will the World Be Like in 2050?,” Wall Street Journal


Muzaffar Chishti and Randy Capps, “Slowing U.S. Population Growth Could Prompt New Pressure for Immigration Reform,” Migration Policy Institute


Stephanie Hegarty, “How do you convince people to have babies?,” BBC


Watch and Listen

David Bloom: Demography is Destiny–Really?,” IMF Podcasts


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