- The United States maintains stockpiles of petroleum, medical equipment, and other materials that the federal and state governments can draw on amid supply disruptions.
- The pandemic focused attention on the Strategic National Stockpile, which some have criticized as understocked for a major disease outbreak.
- President Biden has tapped the Strategic Petroleum Reserve in response to soaring energy prices amid Russia’s invasion of Ukraine.
The United States maintains several strategic stockpiles that the states and federal government can draw from when supply shocks occur. The most prominent among these are the Strategic National Stockpile (SNS), a reserve of essential medical supplies, and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR), a vast storage system of oil. Together, these stockpiles are intended to strengthen national security and protect U.S. foreign policy prerogatives during times of crisis.
The COVID-19 pandemic refocused attention on the SNS, which many have criticized as being inadequately supplied. More recently, President Joe Biden announced the largest release of oil reserves from the SPR in history—up to one million barrels a day for six months—in response to rising energy prices exacerbated by Russia’s war with Ukraine.
What is the Strategic National Stockpile?
The SNS grew out of an earlier program, the National Pharmaceutical Stockpile, which Congress created in 1999 to serve as an emergency supply of drugs and vaccines in the wake of a terrorist attack or other crisis affecting public health. It was overseen by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). In 2003, amid a sweeping government reorganization prompted by the 9/11 terrorist attacks, it became the SNS, and in 2018 was placed under the authority of another body within the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS).
The SNS contains a slew of medical supplies and equipment, including antibiotics, antivirals, vaccines, ventilators, and beds, stored in secret locations across the country to supplement state and local resources. Some of the materials are organized into “twelve-hour push packages”—each contains fifty tons of medical supplies that can be rapidly deployed to another part of the country. The exact contents of the stockpile are kept secret for security reasons, but it holds about $8 billion worth of inventory, according to Greg Burel, who directed the SNS for more than twelve years. The composition of the stockpile is determined by a special interagency body that includes experts from the CDC, the Food and Drug Administration, and the National Institutes of Health.
Governors can request supplies from the SNS to respond to a health emergency in their state. The federal government can also deploy SNS resources at the discretion of executive branch leaders.
The SNS has been used to respond to a range of crises since its inception, including the 9/11 terrorist attacks; Hurricane Katrina; and outbreaks of Zika, Ebola, H1N1, and, most recently, the new coronavirus. But because the SNS was initially designed and funded to handle chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) events, experts, including Burel, say it has not received the necessary funding for pandemic preparedness.
Robert Kadlec, the Donald Trump administration’s official in charge of public health preparedness, has acknowledged that his focus coming into his role in 2017 was readying the country for a bioterrorist attack involving smallpox, anthrax, or other deadly pathogens.
What is the Strategic Petroleum Reserve?
The SPR was created in response to the 1973 oil embargo by the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), imposed in retaliation over the United States’ support of Israel during the Fourth Arab-Israeli War. The Energy Policy and Conservation Act, signed into law by President Gerald Ford in 1975, created the SPR to shield the U.S. economy from future oil supply shocks, including those engineered by oil-producing countries attempting to gain foreign policy concessions.
The president can authorize an emergency drawdown from the SPR in response to a “severe energy supply interruption,” or if the United States is obligated to as part of an international action. Five such drawdowns have occurred: in 1991, during Operation Desert Storm; in 2005, in response to Hurricane Katrina; in 2011, during the conflict in Libya; and twice in 2022, in response to Russia’s invasion of Ukraine. The president can also order a limited withdrawal of up to thirty million barrels to address more modest energy disruptions. In both cases, the Department of Energy auctions the oil to the highest bidder.
Additionally, the SPR can be used for so-called exchange agreements, under which oil is effectively loaned during a supply disruption to a refiner that must then repay it along with additional barrels. These agreements have occurred more commonly, including after Hurricane Harvey in 2017. Congress has at times mandated the sale of oil from the SPR to raise revenue. Conversely, President Trump attempted to use the SPR to respond to a collapse in oil prices at the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, ordering that the reserve be filled to maximum capacity to help struggling U.S. producers, but Congress did not approve the purchase.
Oil demand rebounded in 2021, and rising gasoline prices contributed to record inflation in the United States. In response, President Joe Biden authorized the release of fifty million barrels of oil from the SPR that November through exchange agreements and sales. The release, seen as an effort to pressure OPEC to increase production, was a novel use of the SPR, experts say, given that there was no supply disruption. China, India, Japan, South Korea, and the United Kingdom (UK) also pledged to release oil in coordination with the United States. In early March 2022, as Russia’s war with Ukraine caused turmoil in global energy markets, Biden authorized an emergency release of thirty million barrels. Later that month, he approved the release of up to 1 million barrels a day for six months, or a total of about 180 million barrels—the largest release in the reserve’s history. Biden said the move was a “wartime bridge,” allowing domestic oil production time to ramp up. The administration said it will use the revenue from the release to replenish the reserve in the future, effectively guaranteeing oil companies a customer.
The SPR can hold up to 714 million barrels of oil across its four storage sites—a network of underground caverns in Texas and Louisiana. At the end of 2021, it held nearly 600 million barrels. Up to 4.4 million barrels can be withdrawn per day, with the oil taking about two weeks to reach the market from the time of the president’s declaration. For comparison, the United States consumed nearly twenty million barrels of oil per day in 2021, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration.
What else does the U.S. stockpile?
The United States maintains a few lesser-known stockpiles. The Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve is a stockpile of one million barrels of diesel fuel kept in Connecticut, New Jersey, and Massachusetts to supply the northeastern United States, where the majority of heating oil is used. The federal government used to maintain a stockpile of helium near Amarillo, Texas, but Congress ordered the reserve to be shut by 2021 and the government is winding down operations. While it was initially hoarded for use in military blimps, helium today is used in rockets and in superconductors. Additionally, the Defense Department reportedly stockpiles rare earth minerals, which are used to manufacture advanced weaponry, and lithium, a critical input for advanced batteries, to curb its reliance on Chinese sources. The Pentagon also maintains a National Defense Stockpile of about $1.1 billion worth of various metals.
The government has in the past stockpiled food, but these programs were mainly to support farmers hurt by low prices. For example, in the late 1970s and early 1980s, the Department of Agriculture (USDA) bought surplus dairy products, which it distributed to Americans via various welfare programs. Food stockpiling has been a point of debate in negotiations at the World Trade Organization because some critics say it distorts trade flows.
Today, the USDA still buys various commodities for both domestic and international food aid programs. It also maintains a vault in Fort Collins, Colorado, that houses thousands of plant species and genetic material of livestock in the event of a disaster.
The SNS does not contain food reserves, but the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) stockpiles food, water, generators, and other resources across eight distribution centers located in the United States and its territories.
Are there global stockpiles?
There aren’t many. The United States is a member of the Paris-based International Energy Agency (IEA), which was created around the same time as the SPR following the oil crisis. IEA member countries pledge to hold at least ninety days worth of net oil imports, which can be collectively released during supply shortages. All of the United States’ emergency SPR drawdowns have been part of coordinated IEA actions.
The Svalbard Global Seed Vault safeguards the world’s flora in the event of a major disaster. The vault holds nearly one million seed samples inside a mountain on a remote Norwegian island in the Arctic.
Strategic National Stockpile. The SNS has been criticized for being chronically underfunded and ill-prepared to handle the coronavirus pandemic. President Trump has blamed the Obama administration for failing to resupply the SNS after it utilized stocks during the H1N1 outbreak. However, others point out that the Trump administration did not replenish the stockpile despite warnings from HHS.
Shortly after taking office in 2021, President Biden released his national strategy for responding to pandemics, which called for “revitalizing” the SNS. A subsequent report from the administration, on the U.S. pharmaceutical supply chain, envisions a role for the SNS in securing the country’s access to medicines and critical drug ingredients. Later that year, the head of the SNS told Congress that the stockpile is far better equipped with masks and other protective equipment than before the pandemic.
CFR’s Tom Frieden, who led the CDC during the Barack Obama presidency (2009–2017), when the agency was responsible for the SNS, suggests returning oversight of the stockpile to the CDC. Frieden says that the CDC was better able to coordinate with state and local officials to deploy the stockpile. He also urges greater transparency in how the SNS is managed, including the costs of different stockpiled products. “It is absolutely essential that these life-and-death decisions be insulated from any commercial or political pressures that could lead to purchases that don’t maximize saving lives,” he says. The Biden administration announced that it would conduct an audit of the SNS following a New York Times report that stockpile purchases disproportionately benefited a company that focused on bioterrorism threats.
Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Some analysts have called for an end to the SPR, contending that market forces and private stockpiles are sufficient to shield the United States from a negative supply shock. Others disagree. Former CFR Senior Fellow Amy Myers Jaffe, an expert on energy politics, says the SPR remains an important tool for managing swings in the supply of oil, particularly heavier crude, for which the United States continues to rely on imports.
“When people tell me that we don’t need the SPR, I’m always a little nervous about that because things change,” she says. “Many past predictions about oil markets have been wrong.”
While there is an abundance of oil in the world now, a tighter market in the future is possible. In that case, the United States and its allies would need a stockpile to prevent oil producers from attempting to extort them for foreign policy gains, such as sanctions relief, Jaffe says. Indeed, Russia’s invasion of Ukraine and the resulting energy disruptions have led the Biden administration to consider easing sanctions on oil-rich Venezuela.
Still, Jaffe says the reserve could be modernized. For instance, it could hold a greater balance of heavy crude and act as more of a market buffer, absorbing oil when prices are low and releasing it when prices are high, she says.
There is also concern about the capacity of the country’s broader oil infrastructure and the implications for the SPR. A 2016 review by the Department of Energy warned that aging surface infrastructure, such as storage tanks and pumps, if left unchecked, will begin to compromise the SPR’s capabilities. The surge in U.S. production and resulting congestion in pipelines could leave the SPR unable to effectively deliver oil without shutting off domestic suppliers, the department also said.
Alex Williams, Arnab Datta, and Skanda Amarnath of Employ America, a research and advocacy group, detail how Biden could use the SPR to stabilize oil prices and smooth the transition to renewable energy.
RBC Capital Markets’ Helima Croft discusses the latest release from the SPR on this episode of The President’s Inbox podcast.
This New York Times investigation examines how a handful of biotech companies profited from government purchases for the SNS.
This Congressional Research Service report explains the history and purpose of the SPR.